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σωφρονεῖν: correlative with τὰ πολιτικά.

πρὸς τοῦτο μὲν οὐκ ἀντιλέγω κτλ.: “I do not deny that this was the duty of Socrates; but I claim that he actually did lead his friends to virtue through his precepts and example.” Xenophon postpones the formal refutation of the charge here suggested to iv. 3. 1 ff., where he shows that Socrates strove to secure for his friends a firm foundation in morals, before advising them to enter public life.

προβιβάζοντας: sc. αὐτοὺς (τοὺς μανθάνοντας) as object.

δεικνύντας, δεικνύντα: for the first, cf. ζῶντα in 16; for the second, cf. ζῶντα in 14.

τῶν ἄλλων ἀνθρωπίνων: not different in meaning from τῶν ἀνθρωπείων in i. 1. 16.

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