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ὡς ᾔσθοντο—cf. c. 5, 4, 31, 1, 94, 3. The aorist is usual with ὡς, but, whatever tense is used, it is always independent of that of the main verb. In this respect ὡς differs from other temporal particles. Thus if imperf. is used, as in c. 77, 1, or pluperf. as in c. 59, 1, it is because that tense is required to describe a continuous or completed act, apart from the main verb. If the act in a temporal sentence is represented as simultaneous with or preceding the action of the main sentence, ὅτε or ἐπειδὴ is used.

ᾔσθοντο—‘became aware,’ ingressive aor., a use almost confined to 1st aor. forms.

ἐξαπιναίως—this and ἐξαπίνης, in place of ἐξαίφνης or αἰφνιδίως, are Ionic, and only found in Thuc. and Xenophon of Attic prose writers. [Dem.] c. Neaeram § 99 is copied from this passage. Cf. c. 48, 2, 93, 3.

καταδείσαντες καὶ ν.— ingressive, ‘having become alarmed,’ etc.

πολλῷ πλείους— sc. ἐσῆλθον. An ellipse with comparative is very common.

ἐν τῇ νυκτὶper noctis caliginem. Cf. ἐν νυκτὶ below, and c. 4 ἐν σκότῳ καὶ πήλῳ.

πρὸς ξ. ἐχώρησανse converterunt Cf. III. 66 προείπομεν τὸν βουλόμενον κατὰ τὰ πάντων Βοιῶτων πάτρια πολιτεύειν ἰέναι πρὸς ἡμᾶς, IV. 120, VIII. 40, 2.

ἐνεωτέριζον—the subject is changed, as in 4 below. Thuc. assumes that his readers will follow the narrative attentively.

πράσσοντές πως—the particle implies that unnecessary details are omitted. Cf. ἄλλως πως in brief narrative, I. 99,, VI.2.

κρατήσειν—Cl. defends κρατῆσαι, on the ground that the aor. expresses confidence in the result of the action in ἐπιθέμενοι. But the aor. inf. is very doubtful used thus for the future.

τῷ γὰρ πλήθειγὰρ gives the writer's explanation, and shows that οἱ Πλαταιῆς above was loosely used for τὸ πλῆθος τῶν Π.

βουλομένῳ ἦν—so VII. 35; VIII. 92, 6. M. T. 900. The editors compare Sallust, Jug. 84plebei volenti putabatur”, ib., 100militibus labor volentibus esset.Livy XXI. 50.

ἐπιχειρητέα εἶναι—cf. I. 118 ἐπιχειρητέα ἐδόκει εἶναι πάσῃ προθυμίᾳ. Plur. neut. forms for sing. are very common in Thuc., especially with verbals.

ξυνελέγοντο—with παρ᾽ ἀλλήλους, διορύσσοντες τοὺς τ.—cf. τοιχωρύχος.

ἁμάξας τε—the conjunction adds a third and important fact, as often.

—sc. αὐτό, what has just been described, the barrier of waggons.

ἑτοῖμα—the plur. marks the details of a complex act. See c. 10, 2

φυλάξαντες ἔτι νύκτα—cf. VII. 83 τῆς νυκτὸς φυλάξαντες τὸ ἡσυχάζον. ‘Waited for the time when it was still night.’

ἔτι νύκτα is equivalent to τὴν ἔτι νύκτα.

φυλάξαντες ἔτι νύκτα—cf c. 2, 1.

καὶ—adds the more exact time.

περίορθρον —the beginning of that time of night denoted by ὄρθρος. Cf. IV. 110 νυκτὸς ἔτι καὶ περὶ ὄρθρον, VI. 101 περὶ ὄρθρον, According to Phrynichus (Bekker An. Gr. 54, 8) ὄρθρος ἐστιν ὥρα τῆς νυκτὸς καθ᾽ ἣν ἀλεκτρύονες ᾄδουσιν. ἄρχεται δὲ ἐνάτης ὥρας καὶ τελευτᾷ εἰς διαγελῶσαν ἡμέραν. So in III. 112, Demosthenes attacked the Ambraciots ἅμα ὄρθρῳ, at which time they could not distinguish friend from foe, νυκτὸς ἔτι οὔσης. Thus the Plataean rally was at about 2 o'clock.

γίγνωνται—sc. οἱ Θηβαῖοι. Cf. I. 143 οὐκέτι ἐκ τοῦ ὁμοίου ἔσται, III. 12, 3.

φοβερώτεροι—for the passive meaning, ‘timid,’ cf. IV. 128, 4. Conversely ἀδεὴς which is usually active is occasionally passive =not formidable. See I. 36, 1. Cf. προστρόπαιος, ἀλιτήριος, and in Latin formidolosus and others. See Cook on Sallust, Cat. 39, 2. Shil. quotes Soph. O. T. 153 φοβερὰν φρένα δείματι πάλλων.

ἥσσους ὦσι τῆς—i.e. ἡσσῶνται equivalent to νικῶνται ὑπὸ τῆς κ.τ.λ. σφετέρας—indirect reflexive, i.e. refers to subject of the main verb, not to that of its own clause. Cf. c. 83, 3, 89, 4; IV. 37, 1; V. 47; VII. 48; VIII. 74, 3. This is the regular use of σφέτερος, whereas σφέτερος αὐτῶν is the same as ἑαυτῶν. But Thuc. also uses σφέτερος alone as direct reflexive, as IV. 33 οὐκ ἐδυνήθησαν τῇ σφετέρᾳ ἐμπειρίᾳ χρήσασθαι: and in dependent clauses, as c. 71 and IV. 11 τας σφετέρας ναῦς καταγνύναι ἐκέλευε. ta\ sfe/tera is direct in c. 20, 4; IV. 99, 1, indirect in III. 68, 3.

προσέβαλόν τε—inferential τε, ‘and so.’

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  • Commentary references from this page (30):
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.118
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.143
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.36
    • Thucydides, Histories, 1.99
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.3.4
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.4
    • Thucydides, Histories, 2.71
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.112
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.12
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.66
    • Thucydides, Histories, 3.68
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.11
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.110
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.120
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.128
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.33
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.37
    • Thucydides, Histories, 4.99
    • Thucydides, Histories, 5.47
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.101
    • Thucydides, Histories, 6.2
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.35
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.48
    • Thucydides, Histories, 7.83
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.40
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.74
    • Thucydides, Histories, 8.92
    • Livy, The History of Rome, Book 21, 50
    • Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum, 100
    • Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum, 84
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