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363. Expression of possibility, power, obligation, and necessity.

The differences to be specially noted are these:

The Greek language expresses possibility and power, obligation and necessity, and abstract relations generally, as facts; whereas our translation often implies the failure to realize.

συνέπλει . . . τὰ . . . ἀνδράποδα ἔδει αὐτὸν ἀπολῦσαι,ANTIPHON, 5.20 ; The slaves whom he was to release were on board with him.οἱ . . . ἐν ταῖς τεσσαράκοντα ναυσὶ Πελοποννήσιοι, οὓς ἔδει ἐν τάχει παραγενέσθαι, . . . ἐνδιέτριψαν,THUC.3.29.1 ; The Peloponnesians in the forty ships whose business it was to get (who ought to have got) there quickly, loitered on the way.τότε ξυναλγεῖν χρῆν σ᾽ ὅτ᾽ ὠλλύμην ἐγώ,EUR. Alc. 633 ; tum aequius dolere FUERAT fata cum me tollerent (Buchanan).

DIN.1.81:ὅτε μὲν ἔδει μάχεσθαι . . . ᾤχετ᾽ ἀπιὼν οἴκαδε, ἐπειδὴ δὲ προσῆκεν οἴκοι κινδυνεύειν . . . ᾤχετ᾽ ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ἀποδράς” .

DEM.18.191:ἐχρῆν . . . ἔδει”. 29. 41: “πολὺ κάλλιον ἦν . . . διώκειν”. [46]DEM., 5:ἔδει”. [47]DEM., 76:γεωργῶ δὲ πρὸς τῷ ἱπποδρόμῳ, ὥστε οὐ πόρρω ἔδει αὐτὸν ἐλθεῖν”.

LYS.12.32:χρῆν δέ σε . . . εἴπερ ἦσθα χρηστός . . . τοῖς μέλλουσιν ἀδίκως ἀποθανεῖσθαι μηνυτὴν γενέσθαι” .

ANDOC.1.20: ἐμὲ ἐκεῖνον ἔδει ἀποθανεῖν”, aut mihi aut illi moriendum erat.

PLATO, Apol. 34A:καὶ ἄλλους πολλοὺς ἐγὼ ἔχω ὑμῖν εἰπεῖν, ὧν τινα ὲχρῆν . . . παρασχέσθαι Μέλητον μάρτυρα”.

HDT.3.66:οὐ γὰρ ἦν οἱ ἀσφαλὲς . . . φάναι τὸν Κύρου υἱὸν ἀπολωλεκέναι”. 8.6. 8.68, “α”): “ἀπήλλαξαν οὕτω ὡς κείνους ἔπρεπε”.

AR. Nub. 963:πρῶτον μὲν ἔδει παιδὸς φωνὴν γρύξαντος μηδέν᾽ ἀκοῦσαι” . Ibid. 973:ἔδει” .

EUR. Alc. 633 (see above).

HOM. Il. 1.353: “τιμήν πέρ μοι ὄφελλεν Ὀλύμπιος ἐγγυαλίξαι”.

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