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47. Divergent plural expressions.

Plural expressions that diverge from English proceed from different concep tions. “πυροί”, wheat (grains), “κριθαί”, barley (corns), “κρέα” (pieces of) meat,ἅλες” (grains of) salt.

ξύλα, πυρούς”, DEM.19.145; Wood, wheat.

DEM.19.145(see above). 19.189: “ποῦ δ᾽ ἅλες”; 19.191: “τοὺς ἅλας”.

PLATO, Conv. 217D:διελεγόμην πόρρω τῶν νυκτῶν” , Till late in the night (watches). Prot. 318 E:λογισμούς” (computations) “τε καὶ ἀστρονομίαν . . . διδάσκοντες”. Rpb. 372 C:ἅλας”. Ibid. 621 B: “μέσας νύκτας γενέσθαι” (so regularly “μέσαι νύκτες”).

XEN. An. 6.4.6:κριθὰς καὶ πυροὺς . . . καὶ μελίνας καὶ σήσαμα κτἑ” . Cyr. 2.2.2:κρέα . . . τρία” . Hell. 3.3.7:ξύλα” .

THUC.4.16.1:δύο χοίνικας . . . ἀλφίτων”. 4.6.22:πυροὺς καὶ πεφρυγμένας κριθάς” . 7.87.1:οἱ . . . ἥλιοι” (Heat of the sun on successive days).

HDT.4.8:ἀπὸ ἡλίου ἀνατολέων”, and so “ἀνατολαί” elsewhere. 7.30: “λίμνην ἐκ τῆς ἅλες γίνονται”.

AR. Pax, 192:τὰ κρέα ταυτί” , and “κρέα” very often in Aristophanes. Av. 622:κριθάς, πυρούς” . Ibid. 626:πυροὺς ὀλίγους” .

EUR. Cycl. 122: “γάλακτι καὶ τυροῖσι” (sc. “ζῶσι”). El. 652: “ἡλίους”, days.

ἐκ μὲν ἐσχάτας
βέβρωκε σάρκας


AESCHYL. Eum.254:ὀσμὴ βροτείων αἱμάτων”.

PIND. fr. 168 Bgk.4:σαρκῶν . . . ἐνοπάν”.

HOM. Od. 4.604: “πυροί”, and forms of “πυροί” elsewhere. 9.219 and 225: “τυρῶν”. 11.123 and 23.270: “ἅλεσσι”, but 17.455:σύ γ᾽ ἂν . . . οὐδ᾽ ἅλα δοίης” . 18.77:σάρκες” , and forms of “σάρκες” elsewhere. 22.21:κρέα” , and so forms of “κρέα” often in Iliad and Odyssey.

Il. 5.588: “κονίῃσι”(“ν”), and so regularly, but 23.732 and elsewhere: “κονίῃ”. 23.15: “δεύοντο ψάμαθοι”, and forms of “ψάμαθοι” often in Iliad and Odyssey.

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