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60. When the predicate is not in the form of a verb, but in the form of an adjective or substantive or equivalent, the socalled copula is generally employed to couple the adjective or substantive with the subject. The most common forms of the copula are the verbs “εἰμί”, I am, and “γίγνομαι”, I become, turn out, prove, behave.


θάνατος ζημία ἐστί,LYS.13.69 ; The penalty is death.οὗτοι ἀνδρεῖοί εἰσιν”, PLATO, Lach. 195C; These are brave. So everywhere.


τό τ᾽ ἀσέβημα ἡμέτερον γίγνεται,ANT. 2 a 3 ; The impiety becomes ours.

LYS.1.7:πάντων τῶν κακῶν ἀποθανοῦσα αἰτία μοι γεγένηται” .

ANT. 1.4:οὗτοι τοῦ μὲν τεθνεῶτος φονῆς γεγένηνται, ἐμοὶ δ᾽ ἀντίδικοι καθεστᾶσι” . 2 “α” 3 (see above).

PLATO, Lys. 223B:καταγέλαστοι γεγόναμεν ἐγώ τε . . . καὶ ὑμεῖς.

XEN. Ag. 10.4:βασιλεὺς ἐγένετο” (sc. “Ἀγησίλαος”). (See 64.)

THUC.3.2.3:Τενέδιοι . . . μηνυταὶ γίγνονται” , The Tenedians turn informers.

HDT.8.86:ἦσάν γε καὶ ἐγένοντο ταύτην τὴν ἡμέρην μακρῷ ἀμείνονες αὐτοὶ ἑωυτῶν” , They were really and showed themselves that day to be far better than their wont.

AR. Vesp.207:στροῦθος ἁνὴρ γίγνεται” , The man turns to a sparrow.

SOPH. O. C. 272:οὐδ᾽ ἂν ὧδ᾽ ἐγιγνόμην κακός” . 615:τὰ τερπνὰ πικρὰ γίγνεται καὖθις φίλα” .

PIND. P. 10.22:εὐδαίμων . . . οὗτος ἀνὴρ γίνεται ῾αππροϝες ηιμσελφ̓ σοφοῖς.

MIMN. fr. 5.4-5: ἀλλ᾽ ὀλιγοχρόνιον γίγνεται ὥσπερ ὄναρ
ἥβη τιμήεσσα

HOM. Od. 4.361-2:οἵ ῾σξ. “οὖροι πνείοντες”) ῥά τε νηῶν πομπῆες γίγνονται” . 708-9:αἵ θ᾽ ἁλὸς ἵπποι ἀνδράσι γίγνονται.

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