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627. When adjective and substantive are associated without the article, it is a mere matter of inference whether the adjective is attributive or predicative. “ναῦς ἔρημος” may be ‘an empty ship’ or ‘a ship when empty.’ In Il. 4.124: “κυκλοτερὲς μέγα τόξον ἔτεινεν”, He bent the great bow into a round,κυκλοτερές” is predicate, “μέγα” is attribute. At this stage, then, the Greek language presents the same state of things that is familiar to us in Latin.

But when the substantive was used with the article and the adjective without it, inasmuch as the articular substantive represented the old notion and the adjective the new, a predicative relation was set up.1 As this position is used only in a few combinations in English, it is often necessary to translate by a relative clause or an abstract noun and often the translation costs more than it comes to.

οὔτοι τὰ χρήματ᾽ ἴδια κέκτηνται βροτοί”, EUR. Phoen. 555; The property that mortals hold is not their own.ὅσα συμβεβούλευκα ... ἀπ᾽ ... ἀδιαφθόρου τῆς ψυχῆς” (sc. “συμβεβούλευκα”), DEM.18.298; All that I have counselled, I have counselled in the innocency of my heart.τοὺς δὲ ταχεῖαν τὴν ἀποχώρησιν ποιησαμένους”, LYCURG.96; Those that took their departure quickly, made quick work of their departure.λαμπρᾷ τῇ φωνῇ”, DEM.19.199; With his voice ringing clear, with ringing voice.μεγάλῃ τῇ φωνῇ”, DEM.57.11; At the top of his voice, with loud voice.

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