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166. Interchange of instrument and agent.

When the instrument is considered as an agent or the agent as an instrument the construction is reversed. The former construction, which rests on personification, is very common; the latter in prose is confined chiefly to military phrases, for which see Dative.

ἁλίσκεται ὑπὸ τριήρους”, DEM. [53]DEM., 6; He is captured by a trireme.ἠνάγκασμαι ὑπὸ τῶν γεγενημένων τούτου κατηγορεῖν,LYS. 12.3 ; I have been compelled by what has happened to undertake to prosecute this man.

DEM.6.8, 8.71:οὐδὲ προήχθην οὔθ᾽ ὑπὸ κέρδους οὔθ̓ ὑπὸ φιλοτιμίας”. 20.166: “ὑπὸ τῆς . . . κραυγῆς καὶ βίας καὶ ἀναισχυντίας”. 23.143: “ἐξεδίδοντ᾽ ἂν ὑπὸ τοῦ ὑμετέρου ψηφίσματος”. [43]DEM., 72:τί ποτ᾽ οἴεσθ̓ ἡμᾶς πάσχειν ἐν τῷ παρεληλυθότι χρόνῳ ὑπὸ τούτων καὶ ὑπὸ τῆς ὕβρεως τῆς τούτων”. [53]DEM., 6(see above). 55.30: “διεφθαρμένον” (masc.) “ὑπὸ νόσου”.

AESCHIN.1.42 AESCHIN., 1.90 AESCHIN., 3.218:οὐκ ἀναγκαζόμενος ὑπὸ τῆς ἐν τῇ φύσει δαπάνης”.

LYS.1.49:ὑπὸ τῶν νόμων . . . ἐνεδρεύεσθαι” .

PLATO, Rpb. 609E:ὑπὸ τῆς τῶν σιτίων πονηρίας . . . οὐκ οἰόμεθα δεῖν σῶμα ἀπόλλυσθαι”.

XEN. Conv. 2.26: “οὐ βιαζόμενοι ὑπὸ τοῦ οἴνου μεθύειν”. Oec. 16.14: “οὐδαμῶς ἂν μᾶλλον μὲν ὕλη . . . αὐαίνοιτο ὑπὸ τοῦ καύματος, δὲ γῆ ὀπτῷτο ὑπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου”.

THUC.1.76.2:ὑπὸ τῶν μεγίστων νικηθέντες, τιμῆς καὶ δέους καὶ ὠφελίας”. 1.126.10:ὑπὸ τοῦ λιμοῦ” , but 3.57.3:λιμῷ” . 7.69.2: δὲ Νικίας ὑπὸ τῶν παρόντων ἐκπεπληγμένος” .

HDT.8.129:διεφθάρησαν ὑπὸ τῆς θαλάσσης”.

AR. Ach. 18: “ἐδήχθην ὑπὸ κονίας τὰς ὀφρῦς”, My eyebrows were bitten by lye.

SOPH. Tr. 1104:τυφλῆς ὑπ᾽ ἄτης ἐκπεπόρθημαι”.

PIND. O. 2.21:ἐσλῶν γὰρ ὑπὸ χαρμάτων πῆμα θνᾴσκει” (171).

HOM. Od. 5.393: “μεγάλου ὑπὸ κύματος ἀρθείς”.1

1 See also A. J. P. vi (1885), 487-8.

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