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368. Indicative in other than simple sentences.

The following summary embraces the chief uses of the indicative as shown in other than simple sentences.

I. Incomplete Sentences: Questions.

Indicative questions expect or anticipate1 indicative answers.

II. Semi-dependent Sentences:

1. Object Sentences.—Sentences introduced by “ὅτι”, that, and “ὡς”, how that, often retain the indicative after past tenses, as always after principal tenses.

2. Sentences of Result.—Sentences of result with “ὥστε” (seldom “ὡς”) take the indicative as a statement.

III. Dependent Sentences:

1. Causal Sentences.—The indicative is the only mood used in causal sentences, except as in oratio obliqua.

2. Temporal Sentences.—The indicative in temporal clauses is used chiefly of specific actions.

3. Conditional Sentences.—The indicative in conditional clauses is used either as in indicative questions or as in hopeless wishes.

4. Relative Sentences of Design.—In relative sentences of design the future indicative is used, whereas other languages lean towards optative or subjunctive expressions.

On the Indicative with “ἄν”, see 428-33.

1 Anticipation and expectation are not to be confounded. Anticipation treats the future as if it were present. Expectation postpones the realization. To anticipate payment and to expect payment are by no means the same thing, even in popular parlance, and grammarians should be at least as exact as the ungrammatical herd. See A. J. P. xv (1894), 399 and 523; Plat. Apol.1.2.4.

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