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158. Instrument, means, or cause.

With the passive, the instrument, means, or cause is expressed by the dative or by a prepositional phrase, for which see Prepositions.


λίθῳ πεπληγμένος”, AR. Ach. 1218; Struck with a stone.χρήμασι πεισθῆναι”, THUC.2.21.1.λιμῷ διαφθαρῆναι”, THUC.3.57.3; To perish of (by, with) hunger.

DEM.23.156:ληφθήσεται . . . τῷ . . . λιμῷ”. 55.30: “μεγάλοις λίθοις ἀποικοδομηθέντος”.

PLATO, Rpb. 469E:οἷς ἂν” (sc. “λίθοις”) “βληθῶσι”. Tim. 38 E:δεσμοῖς τε ἐμψύχοις . . . δεθέντα”.

XEN. An. 2.3.1: “βασιλεὺς ἐξεπλάγη τῇ ἐφόδῳ”.

THUC.1.126.8:τρυχόμενοι τῇ προσεδρείᾳ”. 2.21.1 (see above). 3.57.3 (see above). 7.47.2:νόσῳ . . . ἐπιέζοντο” , They were pinched with sickness.

HDT.1.34:αἰχμῇ σιδηρέῃ βληθέντα”. 1.41: “συμφορῇ πεπληγμένον”.

AR. Ach. 1218 (see above). Nub. 24:εἴθ᾽ ἐξεκόπην πρότερον τὸν ὀφθαλμὸν λίθῳ” . Vesp. 1296: “ἐγὼ δ᾽ ἀπόλωλα στιζόμενος βακτηρίᾳ”.

AESCHYL. P.V. 237:πημοναῖσι κάμπτομαι”, I am bowed with thrills of anguish. Sept. 607: “πληγ̔εὶς θεοῦ μάστιγι”, Smitten with god's scourge.

PIND. P. 3.48: “πολιῶ γαλκῶ μέλη τετρωμένοι”.

HOM. Od. 10.532: “ἐσφαγμένα νηλέι χαλκῷ”.

Il. 8.455: “πληγέντε κεραυνῷ”.

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