[*] 12. Nominative for the vocative. In the absence of a vocative form, the nominative is used as a vocative. When the vocative exists, the use of the nominative as a vocative has often a perceptible difference of tone. It is graver and more respectful, because it appeals to character, though sometimes metrical considerations come into play. In Homer, the nominative of proper nouns is frequently substituted for the vocative because of certain irregularities of metre. “ἐγὼ . . ., ὦ γῆ καὶ ἥλιε καὶ . . . σύνεσις . . . βεβοήθηκα,” AESCHIN. 3.260. PLATO, Hipp. Mai. 281 A: “Ἱππίας ὁ καλός τε καὶ σοφός, ὡς διὰ χρόνου ἡμῖν κατῆρας εἰς τὰς Ἀθήνας” .
. 1168. EUR. Hel. 1399: “ὦ κλεινὸς ἡμῖν πόσις” . Suppl. 277: “ὦ φίλος, ὦ δοκιμώτατος Ἑλλάδι” . SOPH. Ai. 525: “Αἴας” , and so regularly in Sophocles. (See Ellendt, Soph. ).
. Ibid. 545: “ὦ φίλος, εἰπέ” . Fr. 207 N2: “τράγος, γένειον ἆρα πενθήσεις σύ γε”. HOM. Od. 1.301: “καὶ σύ, φίλος, μάλα γάρ σε, κτε” . 17.415: “δός, φίλος” . 19.406: “γαμβρὸς ἐμὸς θύγατέρ τε, τίθεσθ᾽ ὄνομ᾽ ὅττι κεν εἴπω” .
. For the occasional use of the Nominative of an Adjective with a Vocative Substantive, or of a Vocative Adjective with a Nominative Substantive, see Index.