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147. Indirect middle.

Much more frequent is the indirect middle, in which the subject is more or less remotely involved, sometimes with sharp distinction from the active, sometimes without any perceptible, or at any rate translatable, difference. See the examples of this and the following section.

μέθην δὲ καὶ ὕπνον ὁμοίως ἐνέδρᾳ φυλάττομαι”, XEN. Hiero, 6.3; Drunkenness and sleep I guard against like an ambush. (“φυλάττω” = keep guard, mount guard over.

LYCURG.85:οὐδ”(“”) . . . “τὴν θρεψαμένην . . . τοῖς πολεμίοις παρέδοσαν”, Nor did they surrender to the enemy the country that reared them for herself.

DEM.20.17:ἧς ἄν τινος πολιτείας τὸ κομίζεσθαι τοὺς εὔνους τοῖς καθεστῶσιν χάριν ἐξέλῃς, οὐ μικρὰν φυλακὴν αὐτῶν ταύτην ἀφῃρηκὼς ἔσει”.

XEN. Hiero, 6.3 (see above). [R. A.] 1.1: “εὖ διασῴζονται τὴν πολιρείαν”, Excellently well do they preserve their form of government.

HDT.2.121:μνημόσυνα ἐλίπετο τὰ προπύλαια”. 3.79: “σπασάμενοι δὲ τὰ ἐγχειρίδια”. 7.119: “ἀπελαύνεσκον, λείποντες οὐδὲν ἀλλὰ φερόμενοι”.

AR. Ach. 51-2: “ἐμοὶ δ᾽ ἐπέτρεψαν οἱ θεοὶ” | “σπονδὰς ποιεῖσθαι πρὸς Λακεδαιμονίους μόνῳ”, The gods permitted me and me alone to make a treaty for myself with the Lacedaemonians. But vv. 57-8: “τὸν ἄνδρ᾽ ἀπάγοντες, ὅστις ἡμῖν ἤθελε” | “σπονδὰς ποιῆσαι” (the generous creature), Taking away the man who wished to make a treaty for us. Ibid. 130-1: “ἐμοὶ” . . . | “σπονδὰς ποίησαι πρὸς Λακεδαιμονίους μόνῳ”.

COM. 4.355.539: “χθὼν πάντα κομίζει καὶ πάλιν κομίζεται”, Earth bringeth everything and takes it back again; Nam terra donat ac resorbet omnia.

AESCHYL. Sept. 718: “ἀλλ᾽ αὐτάδελφον αἷμα δρέψασθαι θέλεις”; What! wilt thou make thee a harvest of thy brother's blood? fr. 44: δὲ” (sc. “γαῖα”) “τίκτεται βροτοῖς” | “μήλων τε βοσκὰς καὶ βίον Δημήτριον”.

PIND. O. 7.42: “σεμνὰν θυσίαν θέμενοι”. 8.68-9: “ἀπεθήκατο . . . νόστον ἔχθιστον”. N. 2.6-10 (148). I. 5.60-1: “ἄραντο γὰρ νίκας ἀπὸ παγκρατίου” | “τρεῖς”.

HOM. Il. 4.529-30: “ἐκ δ᾽ ὄβριμον ἔγχος” | “ἐσπάσατο στέρνοιο”, From out the breast he plucked the ponderous spear, and similarly 5.621: “ἐσπάσατ”(“ο”), 7.255: “ἐκσπασσαμένω”, and 13.510: “ἐσπάσατ”(“ο”); but the active is used 5.859; 6.65; 12.395; and 13.178 (see 148). 11.802-3: “ῥεῖα δέ κ᾽ ἀκμῆτες κεκμηότας ἄνδρας ἀυτῇ” | “ὤσαισθε προτὶ ἄστυ νεῶν ἄπο καὶ κλισιάων”, and similarly 5.691; 8.295; 15.418; 16.592; 655; but 16.44-5: “ῥεῖα δέ κ᾽ ἀκμῆτες κεκμηότας ἄνδρας ἀυτῇ” | “ὤσαιμεν προτὶ ἄστυ νεῶν ἄπο καὶ κλισιάων”, and so the active 8.336; 13.193; 16.569; 17.274 (see also 148).

Homer has a certain fondness for the middle. So, for example, “ἰδέσθαι” occurs 38 times over against the 19 instances of “ἰδέειν” or “ἰδεῖν”. The middle forms of “ὁράω” are not uncommon, whereas in prose we have only “προορᾶσθαι”. The verse has something to do with all this. So “ἰδών” is the only possible form for the aorist participle.

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