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168. Future middle in a passive sense.

The future middle and the future passive are coincident as to form in the earlier language,1 and even in prose the future middle is often used as a future passive.

As the subsequent future passive forms were developed on the basis of the passive aorists in -“ην” and -“θην”, they naturally incline to the aoristic sense, and this aoristic sense becomes more distinct when the future middle is used as a passive. Hence the contrasted groups.

βλάπτω”, I hurt. βλάψομαι βλαβήσομαι
τιμάω”, I honor. τιμήσομαι τιμηθήσομαι
ὠφελέω”, I help. ὠφελήσομαι ὠφεληθήσομαι
δηλόω”, I manifest. δηλώσεται δηλωθήσεται

It is to be noted, however, that consistency in this distinction requires considerable alteration of texts, and that even in the most careful authors such distinctions may lie dormant, just as synonyms lie dormant. Of course, in poetry metre must be allowed to have a certain sway.2

δίκαιος μαστιγώσεται, στρεβλώσεται, δεδήσεται, ἐκκαυθήσεται τὠφθαλμώ, τελευτῶν πάντα κακὰ παθὼν ἀνασχινδυλευθήσεται”, PLATO, Rpb. 361E362 A.

DEM.18.144:μεγάλ᾽ ὠφελήσεσθε πρὸς ἱστορίαν τῶν κοινῶν”. 21. 30: “τοῖς ἀδικησομένοις” (masc.). 23.110: “πολεμήσεται”. 115: “ἀδικήσεται”. [52]DEM., 11:ζημιώσομαι”. 57.37: “καὶ ταῦτα μαρτυρήσεται”.

ANDOC.1.72:τοιαύτην ἀπολογίαν περὶ αὐτοῦ ποιήσομαι, ὅπου μὴ πείθων μὲν ὑμᾶς αὐτὸς ζημιώσομαι, πείσας δὲ κτἑ”.

PLATO, Gorg. 521E:κρινοῦμαι γὰρ ὡς ἐν παιδίοις ἰατρὸς ἂν κρίνοιτο κατηγοροῦντος ὀψοποιοῦ”. Rpb. 361 E-362 A (see above). Tim. 57 E:τὸ . . . κινησόμενον . . . τοῦ κινησομένου”.

XEN. Conv. 7.5: “εὐφρανεῖσθε”. Cyr. 1.5.9: “ὡς . . . εὐφρανούμενοι”. Ibid. 8.7.15: “τίς δ᾽ ἄλλος τιμήσεται δἰ ἄνδρα μέγα δυνάμενον οὕτως ὡς ἀδελφός”; Hiero, 9.9: “τιμήσεται”.

THUC.1.68.3:πολεμήσονται”. 1.81.4:βλαψόμεθα” . 2.87.9:τιμήσονται” . 3.40.3:ζημιώσεται” . 8: “ζημιωσόμενον” (masc.). 7.48.5:φθερεῖσθαι” . 7.67.3:ὠφελήσονται” .

HDT.3.132:τοὺς Αἰγυπτίους ἰητροὺς . . . μέλλοντας ἀνασκολοπιεῖσθαι . . . ἐρρύσατο”.

AR. Ach. 409: “ἀλλ᾽ ἐκκυκλήσομαι” (see 167).

EUR. Andr. 708: “εἰ μὴ φθερῇ τῆσδ᾽ ὡς τάχιστ᾽ ἀπὸ στέγης”.

ὤνθρωπε, μὴ δρᾶ τοὺς τεθνηκότας κακῶς:
εἰ γὰρ ποιήσεις, ἴσθι πημανούμενος

. O. R. 272:φθερεῖσθαι” .

PIND. P. 4.10-1: “φαμὶ γὰρ . . . Ἐπάφοιο κόραν” | “ἀστέων ῥίζαν φυτεύσεσθαι”.

HOM. Od. 1.123: “παρ᾽ ἄμμι φιλήσεαι”.

Il. 12.66: “ὅθι τρώσεσθαι ὀΐω”. 14.481: “ὧδε κατακτενέεσθε καὶ ὔμμες”. 24.728-9: “πρὶν γὰρ πόλις ἥδε κατ᾽ ἄκρης” | “πέρσεται”.3

1 In fact, there is only one distinctly future passive form in Homer, “μιγήσεσθαι”, Il. 10.365.

2 Cf.

ποιῳ ῾σξ. “χρόνῳ”) γὰρ σὴ προσφορὰ δηλώσεται
ὄταν θάνω ᾿γώ

, where “δηλώσεται” is clearly aoristic, with THUC.1.144.2:ἐκεῖνα . . . καὶ ἐν ἄλλῳ λόγῳ ἅμα τοῖς ἔργοις δηλωθήσεται”, where “δηλώσεται” might be justified by the plural “ἔργοις”.

3 See further Blass, Rh. Mus. 47 (1892), 269-90.

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