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156. Details of difference between the active and the middle.

The details of difference between the active and the middle belong to the dictionary. Many of them are conventionally of great importance. “ἀποδίδωμι” is I render, restore,ἀποδίδομαι”, I sell;δανείζω” is I lend (on interest),δανείζομαι”, I borrow (on interest);κίχρημι” is I lend to use,κίχραμαι”, I borrow to use, the aorist in use being “ᾐτησάμην; ἔχω” means I have,ἔχομαι”, I cling to;ἔγημα” signifies I married, duxi (of the man),ἐγημάμην”, I got married, nupsi (of the woman);μισθῶ” is I let,μισθοῦμαι”, I hire. There is a long string of differences between “ποιεῖν” and “ποιεῖσθαι” with verbal nouns in which the active gives the literal side “to fashion,” “to bring about,” whereas the middle serves to form a periphrasis with the dependent substantive for the corresponding verb. So “λόγον ποιεῖν” is to compose a speech,λόγον ποιεῖσθαι”, to make a speech (“λέγειν”); “ὁδὸν ποιεῖν” is to construct a road,ὁδὸν ποιεῖσθαι”, to make one's way (“ὁδεύειν”); “εἰρήνην ποιῆσαι”, to bring about a peace (between two contending parties), “εἰρήνην ποιεῖσθαι”, to make peace (with an enemy); “νόμους τιθέναι”, to be aνομοθέτης”, to be a lawgiver (for those who desire legislators), “νόμους τίθεσθαι”, to make laws for one's own state. Regularly “ἐκκλησίαν ποιεῖν”, to convoke an assembly.

A few examples by way of illustration are given here.

ISOC.6.1:τοσαύτην πεποίημαι τὴν μεταβολήν”.

AND.3.1:ὅτι μὲν εἰρήνην ποιεῖσθαι δικαίαν ἄμεινόν ἐστιν πολεμεῖν”. 3.2: “ δῆμος Αθηναίων εἰρήνην ἐποιήσατο πρὸς Λακεδαιμονίους”.

PLATO, Lach. 180C:ἐνταῦθα ἀεὶ τὰς διατριβὰς ποιούμενον”.

XEN. An. 7.6.41: “ταῦτα ἀποδόμενος οὔτε Σεύθῃ ἀπέδωκεν οὔτε ἡμῖν τὰ γιγνόμενα . . . ἢν οὖν σωφρονῶμεν, ἑξόμεθα αὐτοῦ”.

THUC.1.40.2:ὅστις μὴ τοῖς δεξαμένοις . . . πόλεμον ἀντ᾽ εἰρήνης ποιήσει”, but 5.17.2:ξυνεχωρεῖτο ὥστε ἑκάτεροι πολέμῳ ἔσχον ἀποδόντας τὴν εἰρήνην ποιεῖσθαι” .

HDT.7.42:ἐποιέετο δὲ τὴν ὁδόν”. 8.40: “βουλὴν . . . ποιήσασθαι” (= “βουλεύσασθαι”). 8.74: “τῇσι νηυσὶ οὐκ ἐλπίζοντες ἐλλάμψεσθαι” (act. = to shine upon Not expecting to make a brilliant record with their ships.

AR. Ach. 830: “τὰ χοιρίδἰ ἀπέδου”, You sold the pigs, but Vesp. 1128: “ἀπέδωκ”(“α”) . . . “τῷ κναφεῖ τριώβολον”, I paid the fuller three obols. Lys. 1056-7:ὅστις ἃν . . . δανείσηται . . . μὴ ἀποδῷ” , but Pax, 374: “δάνεισον τρεῖς δραχμάς”.

AESCHYL. fr. 13:σοὶ μὲν γαμεῖσθαι μόρσιμον, γαμεῖν δ᾽ ἐμοί”.

ANACR. fr. 86:καὶ θάλαμος, ἐν τῷ κεῖνος οὐκ ἔγημεν ἀλλ᾽ ἐγήματο”.

THEOGN. 32: “ἀλλ᾽ αἰεὶ τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἔχεο”.

HOM. Od. 14.393: “ἀλλ᾽ ἄγε νῦν ῥήτρην ποιησόμεθ”(“α”). Ibid. 21.70-1: “οὐδέ τιν᾽ ἄλλην” | “μύθου ποιήσασθαι ἐπισχεσίην ἐδύνασθε”.

Il. 7.2: “Ζεὐς δὲ θεῶν ἀγορὴν ποιήσατο τερπικέραυνος”.

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