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πολλάκις. 422 C note τρόπον ᾠδῆς νέον. Pind. Ol. 3. 4 Μοῖσα δ᾽ οὕτω μοι παρεστάκοι νεοσίγαλον εὑρόντι τρόπον. Pindar would incur Plato's censure for these words. ὑπολαμβάνειν: i.e. understand such to be the poet's meaning. μουσικῆς τρόποι. In later musical theory τρόποι was technically used to denote the three varieties of musical composition—νομικός, διθυραμβικός, τραγικός. They were called τρόποι (according to Aristid. Quint. p. 30 Meib.) because they expressed different psychical characters (διὰ τὸ συνεμφαίνειν πως τὸ ἦθος κατὰ τὰ μέλη τῆς διανοίας), because, in short, they were μιμήματα τρόπων. Plato's μουσικῆς τρόποι need not however be confined to Aristides' three varieties. On the connexion between musical and political changes see Laws 700 A—701 D. The connexion was recognised universally throughout Greece, and particularly at Sparta, where—as Pausanias (III 12. 10) tells us—Timotheus had his lyre confiscated for adding to it four new strings: cf. also Cic. de Leg. II 39. Wherever in the ancient Greek πόλις the conception of the individual is hardly separated from that of the citizen, moral and political changes are believed to go hand in hand; and the effect of music on morality is explained in III 400 D—401 A: cf. Laws 673 A τὰ μὲν τοίνυν τῆς φωνῆς μέχρι τῆς ψυχῆς πρὸς ἀρετῆς παιδείαν οὐκ οἶδ᾽ ὅντινα τρόπον ὠνομάσαμεν μουσικήν. Bosanquet raises the question whether musical innovations are the cause or only the symptoms of political. Plato, I think, regarded them primarily as the cause (Laws ll.cc.). We can better understand their effect if we remember that they were accompanied by changes not only in rhythm, but also in the quality, ethical and otherwise, of the words sung; and if we also bear in mind the enormous influence of the theatre in Greek life. The latter point is emphasized in this connexion by Plato (ll.cc.) and Aristoxenus (ap. Ath. XIV 31). See on the whole subject Newman's Politics of Aristotle I pp. 359—369 and Nettleship Hellenica pp. 123—130. φησί -- Δάμων. III 400 B note τοίνυν=‘also’: see I 339 D note
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