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φιλοχρηματισταὶ κτλ. Although Aristotle (Pol. Ε 12. 1316^{a} 39 ff.) pronounces it ἄτοπον to think that oligarchy arises ὅτι φιλοχρήματοι καὶ χρηματισταὶ οἱ ἐν ταῖς ἀρχαῖς, there is no doubt that the special oligarchy which Plato probably has in view, viz. Sparta in the fourth century B.C., became to all intents and purposes an oligarchy chiefly from this cause, as in fact Aristotle himself recognises ib. 7. 1307^{a} 34 ff.: cf. also Β 9. 1270^{a} 14 ff. It should also be remembered that Plato's selection of the αἰτία τῆς φθορᾶς is primarily determined by his psychological standpoint: see on 543 A.

ἐγένοντο. See 548 D note

νόμον τίθενται κτλ. In Sparta, apparently, matters never went so far as this, although those who were unable to make the statutory contribution to the public mess forfeited their citizenship, according to the laws of Lycurgus, and later abuses swelled the ranks of the ὑπομείονες from this cause: see Arist. Pol. Β 9. 1271^{a} 34 and Hermann-Thumser l.c. pp. 258— 260 notes ‘The minimum amount of property qualifying for privilege in an oligarchy’ was of course different in different oligarchical States: cf. Whibley Gk Olig. p. 22.

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