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Tenses


Tense in general

184. The tenses express the relations of time, embracing:

1. The stage of the action, duration in time, kind of time.

2. The period of the action, position in time, sphere of time.

The first tells, for example, whether the action is going on or finished.

The second tells whether the action is past, present, or future.

185. Peculiar to the Greek language, as compared with Latin and English, is the specific form for the relation of attainment called the aorist, the tense of concentrated action, the absolute tense. The kind of time and the sphere of time are both expressed by the tenses of the indicative mood or declarative form of the verb. But present and future have no special aoristic form in the active and middle, though in the passive it is possible to make a distinction.

186. The absence of special forms for designating the kind of time in the future helps to account for many modal combinations. The subjunctive and optative often serve to express exact temporal relations in the future.

187. The tenses are further divided into principal and historical, or primary and secondary, according as they refer to the present and the future on the one hand (time not past) and to the past on the other.

188. Table of Temporal Relations

Indicative Mood
ACTIVE
Continuance. Completion. Attainment.
Principal (Primary) Tenses
PRESENT: γράφω”, I am writing γέγραφα”, I have written γράφω”, I write
FUTURE: γράψω”, I shall be writing γεγραφὼς ἔσομαι”, I shall have written γράψω” [“γράψας ἔσομαι” (293)], I shall write
Historical (Secondary) Tenses
PAST: ἔγραφον”, I was writing ἐγεγράφη”, I had written ἔγραψα”, I wrote
PASSIVE
Principal (Primary) Tenses
PRESENT: γράφεται ἐπιστολή”, The letter is written, being written, writing. γέγραπται”, has been written γράφεται”, is written
FUTURE: (“γράψεται”), will be written (writing). γεγράψεται”, will have been, will be written (“γραφήσεται”), [“γραφεῖσα ἔσται” (293)], will be written
Historical (Secondary) Tenses
PAST: ἐγράφετο”, was (being) written ἐγέγραπτο”, had been written, was written ἐγράφη”, was written


Present Tense

189. Specific present. — universal present.

The present is used, as in English, of that which is going on now (specific present), and of statements that apply to all time (universal present).

Specific Present:

τὸν ἄνδρα ὁρῶ,XEN. An. 1.8.26 ; I see my man.

190. Universal Present:

πάντα . . . ῥεῖ”, PLATO, Cratyl. 440C; Everything is in motion.

PLATO, Crat. 402A (97). 440 C (see above).

HDT.7.9, “γ”): “ἀπὸ πείρης πάντα ἀνθρώποισι φιλέει γίνεσθαι” (97).

COM. Philem.4.40:ἐχθροὺς ποιοῦσι τοὺς φίλους αἱ συγκρίσεις”, Comparisons make enemies of friends.

EPICHARM. fr. 117 Ahr.:νόος ὁρῇ καὶ νόος ἀκούει”, (It is) mind (that) sees and mind (that) hears.

191. Present participle combined with copula.

The Greek has no special form for the progressive present of English, nor for the progressive tenses generally. In the periphrasis with the present participle, the participle is generally equivalent to a characteristic adjective or substantive, with which it is often coupled. Notice must also be taken of the position of the copula, which readily resumes its emphasis.1

δεόμενά ἐστι” = “οἷά ἐστι δεῖσθαι”, comp. XEN. Oec. 7.21. “προσῆκόν ἐστι”, It is becoming;προσήκει”, It becomes.αἰσθανόμενος”, PLATO, Theaet. 160A = “αἰσθητής”, Ibid. 160 D.

LYCURG.36:ὁμολογούμενόν ἐστιν”.

DEM.19.312:τίς γάρ ἐστιν . . . οὕτω σκαιὸς καὶ . . . σφόδρα μισῶν τὴν πόλιν τὴν ἡμετέραν”; 20.152: “ἔστι δὲ καὶ μάλ᾽ ἔχων νόμος ὑμῖν καλῶς”. Ibid.. 153: “παλαιός ἐσθ᾽ νόμος καὶ καλῶς ἔχων”. 157: “αἰσχρὸς . . . καὶ κακῶς ἔχων νόμος”.

ISAE. 7.14: “προσῆκον ἦν”. Ibid. 19: “κἁὶ τοῦτο οὐκ ἀγνοούμενόν ἐστιν οὐδὲ παρ᾽ αὐτοῖς τούτοις”.

LYS. 13.91:ἦν ὑπάρχοντα” .

PLATO, Euthyph. 10B:οὐκ ἄρα διότι ὁρώμενόν ἐστι, διὰ τοῦτο ὁρᾶται, ἀλλὰ τοὐναντίον διότι ὁρᾶται, διὰ τοῦτο ὁρώμενον”. (Here the difference between predication and action is insisted on.) Legg. 811 B:κίνδυνόν φημι εἶναι φέρουσαν τοῖς παισὶ τὴν πολυμαθίαν”, I maintain that multifarious learning is a dangerous thing for children—is endangering to children. Phileb. 11 A:ὅρα δὴ . . . πρὸς τίνα” (sc. “λόγον”) “τὸν παρ᾽ ἡμῖν ἀμφισβητεῖν” (sc. “μέλλεις”), “ἐὰν μή σοι κατὰ νοῦν λεγόμενος”. Theaet. 160 A-D (see above).

XEN. Oec. 7.21: “ τῶν στεγνῶν ἔργα δεὀμενά ἐστι. στεγνῶν δὲ δεῖται . . . τῶν νεογνῶν τέκνων παιδοτροφία. δεόμενα” = quae egentia sunt = quae egeant.δεῖται” = eget. [R. A.] 2.3: “ὁπόσαι δ᾽ ἐν τῇ ἠπείρῳ εἰσὶ πόλεις ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἀρχόμεναι” (= “ὑπήκοοι”), “αἱ μὲν μεγάλαι διὰ δέος ἄρχονται, αἱ δὲ μικραὶ πάνυ διὰ χρείαν”.

THUC.4.109.2:ἔστι δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦ βασιλέως διορύγματος ἔσω προὔχουσα”.

HDT.1.57:ἦσαν οἱ Πελασγοὶ βάρβαρον γλῶσσαν ἱέντες” (= “βαρβαρόφωνοι”). 2.61: “ὅσοι δὲ Καρῶν εἰσι ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ οἰκέοντες” (“οἰκέουσι”, live;οἰκέοντές εἰσι”, are resident). 3.133: “ὅσα ἐς αἰσχύνην ἐστὶ φέροντα”. 4.11: “ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἄλλος λόγος ἔχων ὧδε” (= “τοιόσδε”).

AR. Thesm. 77: “εἴτ᾽ ἔστ᾽ ἔτι ζῶν εἴτ᾽ ἀπόλωλ̓ Εὐριπίδης”. Ran. 35-37: “κατάβα, πανοῦργε. καὶ γὰρ ἐγγὺς τῆς θύρας” | “ἤδη βαδίζων εἰμὶ τῆσδ᾽, οἷ πρῶτά με” | “ἔδει τραπέσθαι”. Well explained by Kock: Auf meinem Marsche bin ich in die Nähe gekommen. Eccl. 1093-4: “οἴμοι κακοδαίμων, ἐγγὺς ἤδη τῆς θύρας” | “ἑλκόμενός εἰμ”(“ι”).

SOPH. O. R. 1045:ζῶν” as adj.; also in Phil. 412.

ARCHIL.1:εἰμὶ δ᾽ ἐγὼ θεράπων μὲν Ἐνυαλίοιο ἄνακτος”, | “καὶ Μουσέων ἐρατὸν δῶρον ἐπιστάμενος”.

192. Conative present. present of endeavor.

As continuance involves the notion of incompleteness, the present is used of attempted and intended action (present of endeavor, conative present). But on account of the double use of the present as a tense of continuance and as a tense of attainment, this signification is less prominent and less important than in the imperfect. Notice that this conative sense runs through the moods.

Indicative:

ὠνοῦμαι”, I am trying to buy, I am bidding.δίδωμι”, I am willing to give, I offer.παρακρούεται . . . ὑμα_ς”, DEM.29.1; He tries to swindle you.οἱ Ἐγεσταῖοι . . . ἡμᾶς ἐκφοβοῦσι”, THUC.6.11.2; The Segestans are trying to frighten us.τὸν υἱὸν κτείνει”, HDT.1.109; He wishes to kill her son.

DEM.29.1(see above).

PLATO, Phaedr. 273D:εἰ . . . ἄλλο τι περὶ τέχνης λόγων λέγεις” (have to say, want to say), “ἀκούοιμεν ἄν”. PLAT. Soph. 242C:λέγε σαφέστερον λέγεις”.

XEN. An. 7.7.7: “ἐξελαύνετε ἡμᾶς ἐκ τῆσδε τῆς χώρας”.

THUC.6.11.2(see above).

HDT.1.109(see above).

PIND. O. 2.98: “τίνα βάλλομεν”; Whom are we trying to hit?

193. Other Moods and Verbals:

ISAE. 2.28: “ἀπηγόρευε τοῖς ὠνουμένοις μὴ ὠνεῖσθαι”.

ISOC.4.17:τὸν μὴ μόνον ἐπίδειξιν ποιούμενον” (= “ποιήσασθαι βουλόμενον”) “ἀλλὰ καὶ διαπράξασθαί τι βουλόμενον”.

PLATO, Protag. 340E:ἰώμενος μεῖζον τὸ νόσημα ποιῶ” , In trying to heal the disease I make it worse.

XEN. Hiero, 11.13: “πλούτιζε . . . τοὺς φίλους”.

THUC.3.18.1:ἐπὶ Μήθυμναν ὡς προδιδομένην ἐστράτευσαν”. 3.22.4:κατέβαλε γάρ τις . . . ἀντιλαμβανόμενος . . . κεραμίδα” . 3.56.2:πόλιν . . . τὴν ἡμετέραν καταλαμβάνοντας” .

EUR. Phoen. 81: “ἔριν λύους”(“α”).

PIND. O. 13.58-60: “τοὶ μὲν . . . Ἑλέναν κομίζοντες, οἱ δ᾽ ἀπὸ πάμπαν εἴργοντες”. P. 4.106: “ἀγκομίζων”, with note.

HOM. Il. 10.457: “φθεγγομένου δ᾽ ἄρα τοῦ γε κάρη κονίῃσιν ἐμίχθη”.

194. Present anticipating the future. — praesens propheticum.

The present tense is used more rarely than in English in anticipation of the future, chiefly in verbs in which the will is equivalent to the deed: “εἶμι”, I go,οὐκ ἐῶ”, I suffer not,γίγνομαι”, I am becoming. The present as a vision of the future is called praesens propheticum.

ἐν δὲ μιᾷ μάχῃ τήνδε τε προσκτᾶσθε” (win = shall win) “καὶ ἐκείνην μᾶλλον ἐλευθεροῦτε” (free = shall free), THUC.4.95.2.τούτων τῶν ψηφισμάτων . . . μενόντων . . . ἁλόντων . . . τί πόλις κερδαίνει βλάπτεται”; DEM. [58]DEM., 37.

LYCURG.126:εἰ γὰρ προήσεσθε τοῦτον τὸν καιρὸν . . ., οὐκ ἔστιν ὑμῖν μετὰ ταῦτα δίκην παρ᾽ αὐτῶν ἀδικούντων λαβεῖν: κρείττους γὰρ ἤδη γίγνονται τῆς παρὰ τῶν ἀδικουμένων τιμωρίας”.

DEM. [58]DEM., 37(see above).

XEN. Cyr. 4.6.7: “εἰ οὖν σύ με δέχῃ κτἑ”.

THUC.1.121.4:μιᾷ τε νίκῃ ναυμαχίας κατὰ τὸ εἰκὸς ἁλίσκονται”. 4.95.2 (see above). 6.91.3:εἰ αὕτη πόλις ληφθήσεται, ἔχεται καὶ πᾶσα Σικελία” .

HDT.1.207:ἑσσωθεὶς μὲν προσαπολλύεις πᾶσαν τὴν ἀρχήν: . . . νικῶν δὲ οὐ νικᾷς τοσοῦτον ὅσον εἰ κτἑ”. 3.155: “ἤδη . . . αἱρέομεν Βαβυλῶνα”. 6.82: “οὐκ αἱρέει τὸ Ἄργος”. 6.109: “ἢν γὰρ σὺ γνώμῃ τῇ ἐμῇ προσθῇ, ἔστι τοι πατρίς τε ἐλευθέρη καὶ πόλις πρώτη τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι”. 8.102: “Μαρδονίου δέ, ἤν τι πάθῃ, λόγος οὐδεὶς γίνεται: οὐδέ τι νικῶντες οἱ Ἕλληνες νικῶσι, δοῦλον σὸν ἀπολέσαντες”.

AR. Eq. 127: “ἐνταῦθ᾽ ἔνεστιν, αὐτὸς ὡς ἀπόλλυται”.

EUR. Phoen. 884-5: “σύ τ᾽ τάλαινα συγκατασκάπτῃ πόλι”, | “εἰ μὴ λόγοις τις τοῖς ἐμοῖσι πείσεται”.

SOPH. Ph. 113:αἱρεῖ τὰ τόξα ταῦτα τὴν Τροίαν μόνα” (97).

AESCHYL. Cho. 550:κτείνω νιν, ὡς τοὔνειρον ἐννέπει τόδε”. P. V. 171:ἀποσυλᾶται” , Ibid. 767: πρὸς δάμαρτος ἐξανίσταται θρόνων;

PIND. O. 8.42: “Πέργαμος . . . ἁλίσκεται”. P. 4.48-9: “τότε . . . ἐξανίστανται”.

195. ei)=mi.

In standard prose “εἶμι” in the indicative is future everywhere. In the optative, infinitive, and participle it is now future, now present. The subjunctive is future by virtue of its meaning.

Indicative as a future:

εἶμι . . . ἐπὶ τὸν τῶνδε ἔπαινον”, THUC.2.36.4; I will proceed to the praise of these men.ἀλλ᾽ εἶμι”, AR. Pax, 232; Well, I am going.

DEM.16.8:ταύτην ἂν ἕλωσιν, ἴασ᾽ ἐπὶ Μεσσήνην”. 20.99: “εἶμι”. 23.106: “οὐκ ἐπ᾽ ἐκείνους ἴμεν καὶ δἰ ἐκείνων ἀσθενῆ ποιεῖν αὐτὸν ζητήσομεν”;

PLATO, Protag. 335C:νῦν δὲ . . . ἐλθεῖν γάρ ποί με δεῖ . . . εἶμι”.

THUC.2.36.4(see above). 4.85.6:ἀλλὰ καὶ οἷς ἂν ἐπίω, ἧσσόν τις ἐμοὶ πρόσεισι” .

AR. Pax, 232 (see above). Eccl. 933: “τάχα γὰρ εἶσιν ὡς ἐμέ”.

SOPH. Ph. 461:νῦν δ᾽ εἶμι πρὸς ναῦν”.

HOM. Od. 17.277: “εἰ δ᾽ ἐθέλεις, ἐπίμεινον, ἐγὼ δ᾽ εἶμι προπάροιθεν”.

Il. 3.410: “κεῖσε δ᾽ ἐγὼν οὐκ εἶμι”.

Optative as a future:

ANTIPHON, 1.11: “ἐπειδὴ τάχιστα αὐτοῖς ἀπηγγέλθη ὅτι ἐπεξίοιμι τοῦ πατρὸς τὸν φονέα”.

XEN. Hell. 5.1.34: “ἀλλ᾽ Ἀγησίλαος καὶ τούτοις προεῖπε, τοῖς μέν, εἰ μὴ ἐκπέμψοιεν τοὺς Ἀργείους, τοῖς δέ, εἰ μὴ ἀπίοιεν ἐκ τῆς Κορίνθου, ὅτι πόλεμον ἐξοίσει ἐπ̓ αὐτούς”.

Infinitive as a future:

LYS. 25.22:τότ᾽ ἤδη καὶ κατιέναι προσεδοκα_τε καὶ παρὰ τῶν ἐχθρῶν λήψεσθαι δίκην” .

PLATO, Phaed. 103D:καὶ τὸ πῦρ γε αὖ προσιόντος τοῦ ψυχροῦ αὐτῷ ὑπεξιέναι” (sc. “δοκεῖ σοι”) “ ἀπολεῖσθαι”.

XEN. An. 1.3.1: “οἱ γὰρ στρατιῶται οὐκ ἔφασαν ἰέναι τοῦ πρόσω”.

THUC.4.98.4:ἀπιέναι”. 5.7.3:ἐπεξιέναι” . 5: “ἀπιέναι”. 6.49.4:προσιέναι” .

Participle as a future:

PLATO, Protag. 335C:ἀνιστάμην ὡς ἀπιών”.

THUC.3.27.2:ὡς ἐπεξιὼν τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις”.

AR. Pax, 1182: “οὐ γὰρ ᾔδειν ἐξιών”.

196. Optative, Infinitive, and Participle of ei)=mi not future:

ANDOC.1.39:ἰδὼν δὲ ταῦτ᾽ ἔφη ἐπὶ Λαύριον ἰέναι” (91).

PLATO, Cratyl. 401D:σχεδόν τι αὖ οὗτοι καθ᾽ Ἡράκλειτον ἂν ἡγοῖντο τὰ ὄντα ἰέναι τε πάντα καὶ μένειν οὐδέν”.

XEN. An. 1.3.1: “ὑπώπτευον γὰρ ἤδη ἐπὶ βασιλέα ἰέναι”.

THUC.5.65.2:ὁρῶν πρὸς χωρίον καρτερὸν ἰόντας σφᾶς”.

197. Indicative as a present:

The use of “εἶμι” itself as present is poetical and late.

PLATO, Conv. 174B:ἀγαθῶν ἐπὶ δαῖτας ἴασιν αὐτόματοι ἀγαθοί” (PROV.).

HOM. Od. 4.401: “τῆμος ἄρ᾽ ἐξ ἁλὸς εἶσι γέρων ἅλιος νημερτής”.

Il. 2.87: “ἠύτε ἔθνεα εἶσι μελισσάων ἁδινάων”.

198. Present in passionate questions.

In passionate questions, the present is used as a form of exhortation.

τί οὖν οὐ διώκομεν ὡς τάχιστα”; XEN. Cyr. 4.1.11; Why, then, do we not pursue with all speed?

XEN. Cyr. 4.1.11 (see above). 12: “τί οὖν . . . οὐκ ἐλθὼν Κυαξάρῃ λέγεις ταῦτα”;

EUR. Hipp. 1060: “ θεοί, τί δῆτα τοὐμὸν οὐ λύω στόμα”;

199. Historical present.

The present tense is used far more frequently than in English as a lively representation of the past (historical present). Especially strange to us is the free use of the historical present in relative and dependent clauses generally, as these demand more reflection.2

τί ποιοῦσιν; . . . διεκαρτέρουν”, LYCURG.85; What did they do?—They held out to the end.πῶς οὖν ταῦτ᾽ ἐποίησεν; μισθοῦται τουτονί”, DEM.18.149; How, then, did he do this? He hires this fellow.

LYCURG.85(see above).

DEM.18.149(see above). [53]DEM., 17:τηρήσας με . . . παίει τε πὺξ καὶ ἁρπάζει μέσον καὶ ὠθεῖ με εἰς τὰς λιθοτομίας, εἰ μή τινες προσιόντες, βοῶντός μου ἀκούσαντες, παρεγένοντο καὶ ἐβοήθησαν”. (“ὠθεῖ” is an hist. pres. equivalent to an impf. de conatu.

PLATO , Phaedo 84 D:καὶ ὃς ἀκούσας ἐγέλασέ τε ἠρέμα καί φησι”.

XEN. An. 1.10.1: “ἐνταῦθα δὴ Κύρου ἀποτέμνεται κεφαλὴ καὶ χεὶρ δεξιά. βασιλεὺς δὲ καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ διώκων εἰσπίπτει εἰς τὸ Κύρειον στρατόπεδον: καὶ οἱ μὲν μετὰ Ἀριαίου οὐκέτι ἵστανται, ἀλλὰ φεύγουσι”.

THUC.1.59.1:αἱ δὲ τριάκοντα νῆες τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἀφικνοῦνται ἐς τὰ ἐπὶ Θρᾴκης καὶ καταλαμβάνουσι τὴν Ποτείδαιαν καὶ τἆλλα ἀφεστηκότα”. 1.91.2:κελεύει” . 1.91.3:ἀποστέλλουσιν . . . πέμπει” . 6.57.3:ἔτυπτον καὶ ἀποκτείνουσιν αὐτόν” . (ter). 8.10.3:καταδιώκουσιν . . . ἀπολλύασι . . . ὁρμίζουσι” . 8.25.3 (twice). 8.25.4. 8.55.3 (ter).

HDT.1.43:ἀκοντίζων τὸν ὗν, τοῦ μὲν ἁμαρτάνει, τυγχάνει δὲ τοῦ Κροίσου παιδός”. 45: “κατοικτίρει . . . λέγει”. 107: “διδοῖ” (twice). 3.4: “ὃς αἱρέει μιν ἐν Λυκίῃ, ἑλὼν δὲ οὐκ ἀνήγαγε ἐς Αἴγυπτον”. 3.53: “ἵνα μή σφι Περίανδρος ἐς τὴν χώρην ἀπίκηται, κτείνουσι τὸν νεηνίσκον”. 5.11: “αἰτέει . . . αἱρέεται . . . αἰτέει”.

AR. Pl. 676: “ἔπειτ᾽ ἀναβλέψας ὁρῶ τὸν ἱερέα”.

EUR. H. F. 252: “ γῆς λοχεύμαθ᾽ οὓς Ἄρης σπείρει ποτέ”. I. T. 16: “εἰς ἔμπυρ᾽ ἦλθε” (sc. “Ἀγαμέμνων”), “καὶ λέγει Κάλχας τάδε”.

SOPH. El. 424-5: “τοιαῦτά του παρόντος, ἡνίχ᾽ Ἡλίῳ” | “δείκνυσι τοὔναρ, ἔκλυον ἐξηγουμένου”. Ibid. 679: “τἀληθὲς εἰπέ, τῷ τρόπῳ διόλλυται”; O. T. 779-80: “ἀνὴρ γὰρ ἐν δείπνοις μ᾽ ὑπερπλησθεὶς μέθῃ” | “καλεῖ παρ᾽ οἴνῳ, πλαστὸς ὡς εἴην πατρί”. Ibid. 787: “πορεύομαι”. Ibid. 798: “ἱκνοῦμαι”. Ibid. 807: “παίω . . . ὡς ὁρᾷ”. Ibid. 812: “ἐκκυλίνδεται”. Ibid. 813: “κτείνω”.

ὅπως τάχιστα τὸν πατρῷον ἐς θρόνον
καθέζετ᾽, εὐθὺς δαίμοσιν νέμει γέρα
... καὶ διεστοιχίζετο
ἀρχήν.

200. This use of the present belongs to the original stock of our family of languages. It antedates the differentiation into imperf. and aorist. Being a familiar form, it is set down as a mark of simplicity (“ἀφέλεια”) of style. By reason, therefore, both of its liveliness and its familiar tone it is foreign to the leisurely and dignified unfolding of the epos, and is not found in Homer, whereas it is very common in the rhetorical Vergil, as it is very common in the Attic orators. Nor is it used to any extent, if at all, in the statuesque Pindaric ode, whereas it is frequent in the Attic drama, which seems to have introduced it to higher literature.

201. Annalistic or note-book present.

Akin to the Historical Present, and not always to be distinguished from it, is the Annalistic Present, Note - book Present, or Present of Registration, which transfers a record or register to the historical page. So especially in dates of births, deaths, and accessions.

Δαρείου καὶ Παρυσάτιδος γίγνονται παῖδες δύο”, XEN. An. 1.1.1; To (of) Darius and Parysatis are born two sons.Κυαξάρης μὲν . . . τελευτᾷ, ἐκδέκεται δὲ Ἀστυάγης . . . τὴν βασιληίην”, HDT.1.106; Cyaxares dies and Astyages succeeds to the throne.τούτου δὲ Κελεὸς γίγνεται”, AR. Ach. 48.

202. Present of unity of time.

The present is used in Greek of actions that are continued from the past into the present, especially with designations of time. The English translation is often the progressive perfect.

οἰκῶ ἐνταῦθ᾽ ἐκ μειρακίου”, DEM. [47]DEM., 53; I have been living there from a boy.κεῖνον γάρ, οὐδέν᾽ ἄλλον, ἰχνεύω πάλαι,SOPH. Ai. 20 ; For he it is, none other, I've been tracking long.

DEM.21.59:πάντα τὸν μετὰ ταῦτα χρόνον διδάσκει τοὺς χορούς”. [33]DEM., 4:οὔπω δ᾽ ἔτη ἐστὶν ἑπτά, ἀφ̓ οὗ τὸ μὲν πλεῖν καταλέλυκα, μέτρια δ᾽ ἔχων τούτοις πειρῶμαι ναυτικοῖς ἐργάζεσθαι”. [47]DEM., 53(see above).

LYS.17.9:οὔτε νεωστὶ ταῦτα τὰ χρήματα ἀξιοῦμεν ἡμέτερα εἶναι” .

PLATO, Conv. 172C:ἀφ᾽ οὗ δ᾽ ἐγὼ Σωκράτει συνδιατρίβω . . . οὐδέπω τρία ἔτη ἐστίν”. Phaedo 84 D:πάλαι . . . προωθεῖ καὶ κελεύει”.

HDT.3.49:νῦν δὲ αἰεὶ ἐπείτε ἔκτισαν τὴν νῆσον, εἰσὶ ἀλλήλοισι διάφοροι”. 7.102: “τῇ Ἑλλάδι πενίη . . . αἰεί κοτε σύντροφός ἐστι”. 8.62: “κομιεύμεθα ἐς Σῖριν τὴν ἐν Ἰταλίῃ, περ ἡμετέρη τέ ἐστι ἐκ παλαιοῦ ἔτι καὶ κτἑ”.

AR. Ach. 17: “ἐξ ὅτου ᾿γὼ ῥύπτομαι” (146). Vesp. 317: “τήκομαι μὲν πάλαι”. Ibid. 320: “βούλομαί γε πάλαι”.

EUR. H. F. 702-3: “χρόνος γὰρ ἤδη δαρὸς ἐξ ὅτου πέπλοις” | “κοσμεῖσθε σῶμα”.

HOM. Od. 13.377: “οἳ δή τοι τρίετες μέγαρον κάτα κοιρανέουσιν”.

Il. 1.553: “καὶ λίην σε πάρος γ᾽ οὔτ᾽ εἴρομαι οὔτε μεταλλῶ”.

So in the other moods of continuance:

LYS.17.8:ἴσασιν ἡμᾶς ἤδη τρία ἔτη ἀμφισβητοῦντας” .

HDT.8.41:αὕτη δ᾽ μελιτόεσσα ἐν τῷ πρόσθε αἰεὶ χρόνῳ ἀναισιμουμένη τότε ἦν ἄψαυστος”.

AR. Vesp. 1074: “ῥᾳδίως ἐγὼ διδάξω, κἂν ἄμουσος τὸ πρίν”, Readily will I teach him e en if he have been untrained before.

203. Perfect of unity of time.

This does not exclude the use of the perfect.

τὰ . . . Σφηττοῖ ἤδη τρία ἔτη μεμίσθωκα,LYS. 17.5 ; I have let the Sphettian property now three years.

LYS.9.4:ἀφικόμενος προπέρυσιν εἰς τὴν πόλιν, οὔπω δύο μῆνας ἐπιδεδημηκὼς κατελέγην στρατιώτης” .

204. Present for perfect.

The present tense of a number of verbs that involve unity of character or persistence of result, is often translated by the English perfect. “νικῶ”, I am victorious, I have conquered;ἥκω”, I am here, I have arrived;οἴχομαι”, I am off, I am gone;ἀκούω”, I hear or have heard;πυνθάνομαι”, I learn or have learned.στέρομαι”, I am deprived, and so all verbs of privation.

νῦν δ᾽ ἑτέρου πολέμου καιρὸς ἥκει τις”, DEM.3.6, “νικῶμεν . . . βασιλέα”, XEN. An. 2.1.4; We are victorious over (have conquered) the king.ἐκεῖνο ἀκήκοας; . . . καὶ τοῦτό γ̓, ἔφη, ἀκούω”, Mem. 3.5.26. “στερόμεθα ἐπιστήμης”, PLATO, Theaet. 196E; We are deprived of, have to go without, science.

DEM.3.6(see above). 4.24: “πρότερόν ποτ᾽ ἀκούω ξενικὸν τρέφειν ἐν Κορίνθῳ τὴν πόλιν”, but 19.221: “καὶ γὰρ ταῦτ᾽ ἀκήκὀ αὐτὸν λέγειν”.

ANTIPHON. Cf. 3 “δ” 9: “εἰ δὲ αὐθέντης ἐκ τῶν λεγομένων ἐπιδείκνυται, οὐχ ἡμεῖς αὐτῷ οἱ λέγοντες αἴτιοί ἐσμεν, ἀλλ᾽ πρᾶξις τῶν ἔργων”.

PLATO, Gorg. 503C:Θεμιστοκλέα οὐκ ἀκούεις ἄνδρα ἀγαθὸν γεγονότα”; Theaet. 142 B:χαλεπῶς μὲν γὰρ ἔχει καὶ ὑπὸ τραυμάτων τινῶν, μᾶλλον μὴν αὐτὸν αἱρεῖ τὸ γεγονὸς νόσημα ἐν τω? στρατεύματι”. Ibid. 196 E (see above).

XEN. An. 2.1.4 (see above). Mem. 3.5.26 (see above).

THUC.1.70.7: μὲν ἂν ἐπινοήσαντες μὴ ἐξέλθωσιν, οἰκεῖα στέρεσθαι ἡγοῦνται”, “In failing to attain an object, they consider that they have lost” (are suffering the loss of) “what was really their own.”—Morris.

HDT.7.53:ὡς γὰρ ἐγὼ πυνθάνομαι, ἐπ᾽ ἄνδρας στρατευόμεθα ἀγαθούς”.

EUR. Hel. 134: “οἴχεται θανοῦσα δή”.

SOPH. El. 1326: πλεῖστα μῶροι καὶ φρενῶν τητώμενοι”. Ph. 414: “ἀλλ᾽ χοὖτος οἴχεται θανών”;

PIND. P. 6.22-3: “ὀρφανιζομένῳ” | “Πηλεΐδᾳ”.

HOM. Od. 1.298: “ οὐκ ἀίεις, οἷον κλέος ἔλλαβε δῖος Ὀρέστης”; 2.118: “οἰ̔̂ οὔ πώ τιν᾽ ἀκούομεν”. 3.86-8: “ἄλλους μὲν γὰρ πάντας, ὅσοι Τρωσὶν πολέμιζον”, | “πευθόμεθ̓, ἧχι ἕκαστος ἀπώλετο λυγρῷ ὀλέθρῳ:” | “κείνου δ᾽ αὖ καὶ ὄλεθρον ἀπευθέα θῆκε Κρονίων”.


Imperfect Tense3

205. The imperfect tense denotes continuance in the past. It is the tense of evolution, of vision.

τὸ παιδίον ἐβόα,LYS.1.11 ; The baby was squalling, began to squall, squalled.

206. Imperfect with adverb of rapidity.

The continuance is in the mind of the narrator; it has nothing to do with the absolute duration of the action. The aorist is the rule with the expression of definite numbers (see 208), and it is not at all inconsistent with the nature of the imperfect tense that it should be accompanied by an adverb expressing the notion of rapidity.

εὐθὺς ἐχώρει ἐπὶ τὴν Ἀρκαδίαν”, XEN. Hell. 6.5.12; Forthwith he proceeded on his way to Arcadia.

LYS.1.17:εὐθέως ἐταραττόμην” . 8.15:εὐθὺς . . . ἐβάδιζε” . 9.4:ὑπετοπούμην εὐθέως” . 13.35:εὐθέως κρίσιν τοῖς ἀνδράσι τούτοις ἐποίουν ἐν τῇ βουλῇ” . 21.3:εὐθὺς ἐγυμνασιάρχουν” .

XEN. An. 3.4.27: “οἱ δὲ πολέμιοι ταχὺ ἀπεπήδων”. Hell. 6.5.12 (see above).

THUC.3.49.2:τριήρη εὐθὺς ἄλλην ἀπέστελλον”, They despatched (were for despatching) another trireme at once. 3.106.1:ἐβοήθουν κατὰ τάχος” . 3.109.3:διὰ τάχους ἔθαπτον” . 3.111.1:θᾶσσον ἀπεχώρουν” . 5.21.1:εὐθὺς . . . ἀφίεσαν” . 5.21.3:κατὰ τάχος ἐπορεύετο” . 6.69.1:ἐπῆγε τὸ στρατόπεδον εὐθύς . . . ἀναλαβόντες τὰ ὅπλα εὐθὺς ἀντεπῇσαν” . 7.29.1:εὐθὺς ἀπέπεμπον” . 7.69.1:ἀντεπλήρουν τὰς ναῦς εὐθύς” . 7.84.3:εὐθὺς διεφθείροντο” . 8.12.3:διὰ τάχους τὸν πλοῦν ἐποιοῦντο” .

HDT.1.79:ἐποίεε κατὰ τάχος”.

AR. Nub. 1357: δ᾽ εὐθέως . . . ἔφασκε” . Vesp. 355: “ἵεις σαυτὸν κατὰ τοῦ τείχους ταχέως”.

PIND. P. 9.38-9: “μῆτιν ἑὰν” | “εὐθὺς ἀμείβετο”.

HOM. Od. 9.179: “οἱ δ᾽ αἶψ̓ εἴσβαινον καὶ ἐπὶ κληῖσι καθῖζον”.

Il. 2.52: “τοὶ δ᾽ ἠγείροντο μάλ̓ ὦκα”.

207. Descriptive imperfect.

The imperfect is employed to represent manners, customs, situations, to describe and to particularize.

ἧς” (sc. “τῆς βουλῆς”) “ἐπιστατούσης οὐ δικῶν οὐδ᾽ ἐγκλημάτων οὐδ᾽ εἰσφορῶν οὐδὲ πενίας οὐδὲ πολέμων πόλις ἔγεμεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἡσυχίαν εἶχον καὶ πρὸς τοὺς ἄλλους ἅπαντας εἰρήνην ἦγον. παρεῖχον . . . διῆγον . . . ἐποίουν . . . ἐδοκίμαζον”, ISOC.7.51-3, a description of the good old times. “ δὲ γυνὴ τοῦ βασιλέος αὐτὴ τὰ σιτία σφι ἔπεσσε”, HDT.8.137; The queen herself would cook them their food.τῶν δὲ πολεμίων, ἐπεὶ φῶς ἐγένετο, οἱ μὲν ἐθαύμαζον τὰ δρώμενα, οἱ δ᾽ ἐγίγνωσκον ἤδη, οἱ δ᾽ ἤγγελλον, οἱ δ᾽ ἐβόων, οἱ δ᾽ ἔλυον ἵππους”, and so on to the number of 16 imperfects, XEN. Cyr. 4.2.28. “προηγόρει δὲ αὐτῶν Θηραμένης”, Hell. 2.2.22; Theramenes was their spokesman.

ISOC.7.51-3 (see above).

LYS. 12.8-9:ἐγὼ δὲ Πείσωνα μὲν ἠρώτων εἰ βούλοιτό με σῶσαι χρήματα λαβών: δ᾽ ἔφασκεν, εἰ πολλὰ εἴη” .

PLATO, Theaet. 143A:καὶ ὁσάκις Ἀθήναζε ἀφικοίμην, ἐπανηρώτων τὸν Σωκράτη μὴ ἐμεμνήμην, καὶ δεῦρο ἐλθὼν ἐπηνωρθούμην”.

XEN. Cyr. 4.2.28 (see above). Hell. 2.2.22 (see above). Ibid. 2.4.33: “ἠκόντιζον, ἔβαλλον, ἐτόξευον, ἐσφενδόνων”. Ibid. 4.3.19: “ἐωθοῦντο, ἐμάχοντο, ἀπέκτεινόν, ἀπέθνῃσκον”. Ibid. 6.4.36: “εἴχετο τοῦ ῥόπτρου, ἕως ἀπέθανεν ἀνήρ”. Ibid. 7.2.6-8. (In the spirited account of the fight the imperfect outnumbers the aorist 5 to 1.)

THUC.3.81.3:ὡς ἑώρων τὰ γιγνόμενα, διέφθειρον αὐτοῦ ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ ἀλλήλους καὶ ἐκ τῶν δένδρων τινὲς ἀπήγχοντο, οἱ δ᾽ ὡς ἕκαστοι: ἐδύναντο ἀνηλοῦντο”.

HDT.7.173:ἐστρατήγεε δὲ Λακεδαιμονίων . . . Εὐαίνετος”. 8.137 (see above).

AR. Ach. 185: “ἐγὼ δ᾽ ἔφευγον: οἱ δ᾽ ἐδίωκον κἀβόων”. Eq. 46-8: “οὗτος καταγνοὐς τοῦ γέροντος τοὺς τρόπους”, | . . . | “ᾔκαλλ̓, ἐθώπεὐ, ἐκολάκεὐ, ἐξηπάτα”. Av. 1282:ἐκόμων, ἐπείνων, ἐρρύπων, ἐσωκράτων” .

EUR. Hipp. 1194-8: “ἐπῆγε . . . εἱπόμεσθα . . . εἰσεβάλλομεν”.

SOPH. Ai. 298-300:ηὐχένιζε . . . ἔσφαζε κὰρράχιζε . . . ᾐκίζεθ᾽” .

AESCHYL. Pers. 416-26: “ἔθραυον . . . ἔθεινον . . . ὑπτιοῦτο . . . ἐπλήθυον . . . ἠρέσσετο . . . ἔπαιον, ἐρράχιζον”.

PIND. P. 4.240-1: “ὤρεγον χεῖρας . . . ἔρεπτον . . . ἀγαπάζοντ”(“ο”).

HOM. Od. 1.110-2: “οἱ μὲν ἄρ᾽ οἶνον ἔμισγον . . . οἱ δ”(“”) . . . “τραπέζας νίζον καὶ πρότιθεν, τοὶ δὲ κρέα πολλὰ δατεῦντο”.

Il. 1.249: “τοῦ καὶ ἀπὸ γλώσσης μέλιτος γλυκίων ῥέεν αὐδή”.

208. Imperfect with definite numbers.

With definite numbers, the aorist is employed (see 243), but when there is a notion of interruption or of continuance into another stage (overlapping), the imperfect is used.

ταῦτα δ᾽ ἐποίει τέτταρας ἡμέρας”, XEN. Hell. 2.1.24; He kept this up four days (but on the fifth, “ἐπεὶ ἦν ἡμέρα πέμπτη”, § 27). “καταβὰς δὲ κάτω ἐς τὸ κατάγαιον οἴκημα διαιτᾶτο ἐπ᾽ ἔτεα τρία: . . . τετάρτῳ δὲ ἔτεϊ ἐφάνη τοῖσι Θρήιξι”, HDT.4.95; He went down into the underground room and lived there for three years, but in the fourth he appeared to the Thracians.

DEM.19.78:τέτταρας μῆνας ὅλους ἐσῴζονθ᾽ οἱ Φωκεῖς τοὺς ὕστερον, δὲ τούτου ψευδολογία μετὰ ταῦθ̓ ὕστερον αὐτοὺς ἀπώλεσεν”.

XEN. Hell. 2.1.24 (see above). Ibid. 2.2.16-7: “διέτριβε παρὰ Λυσάνδρῳ τρεῖς μῆνας καὶ πλέον . . . ἐπεὶ δὲ ἧκε τετάρτῳ μηνί, ἀπήγγειλεν κτἑ”.

THUC.4.69.3:καὶ ταύτην μὲν τὴν ἡμέραν ὁλην εἰργάζοντο: τῇ δ᾽ ὑστεραίᾳ περὶ δείλην τὸ τεῖχος ὅσον οὐκ ἀπετετέλεστο, καὶ οἱ ἐν τῇ Νισαίᾳ δείσαντες . . . ξυνέβησαν τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις”.

HDT.1.18-9: “ἐπολέμεε ἔτεα ἕνδεκα . . . τῷ δὲ δυωδεκάτῳ ἔτεϊ . . . συνηνείχθη τι τοιόνδε γενέσθαι πρῆγμα”. 4.95 (see above). 4.158: “τοῦτον οἴκεον τὸν χῶρον ἓξ ἔτεα: ἑβδόμῳ δέ σφεας ἔτεϊ . . . οἱ Λιβύες . . . ἀνέγνωσαν ἐκλιπεῖν”. 7.191: “ἡμέρας γὰρ δὴ ἐχείμαζε τρεῖσ᾽ τέλος δὲ ἔντομά τε ποιεῦντες καὶ καταείδοντες γόησι οἱ Μάγοι τῷ ἀνέμῳ . . . ἔπαυσαν τετάρτῃ ἡμέρῃ”.

AR. Thesm. 502-3: “ἑτέραν δ᾽ ἐγᾦδ᾽ ᾿φασκεν ὠδίνειν γυνὴ” | “δέχ᾽ ἡμέρας, ἕως ἐπρίατο παιδίον”.

HOM. Od. 2.106 sqq. 3.118 sq. 304 sqq. 4.360 sqq. 5.278 sq. 388 sqq. 7.253 sq. 259 sqq. 267 sqq. 9.74 sqq. 9.82 sqq. 10.80 sq. 142 sqq. 14.240 sqq. 250 sqq. 285 sqq.

Il. 9.470 sqq. 21.45 sqq.

209. The above succession of imperfect and aorist is the type, but there are variations.

ἡμέρας μὲν πέντε ἡσύχαζον, τῇ δ᾽ ἕκτῃ ἐτάσσοντο ἀμφότεροι ὡς ἐς μάχην”, THUC.3.107.3; Five days they kept quiet, but on the sixth both parties began to draw up as for battle.

THUC.3.107.3(see above).

HDT.7. 20:ἐπὶ μὲν τέσσερα ἔτεα πλήρεα παραρτέετο στρατιήν τε καὶ . . ., πέμπτῳ δὲ ἔτεϊ ἀνομένῳ ἐστρατηλάτεε χειρὶ μεγάλῃ πλήθεος”.

HOM. Od. 10.28 sqq.: “ἐννῆμαρ μὲν ὁμῶς πλέομεν νύκτας τε καὶ ἦμαρ”, | “τῇ δεκάτῃ δ᾽ ἤδη ἀνεφαίνετο πατρὶς ἄρουρα”, | “καὶ δὴ πυρπολέοντας ἐλεύσσομεν ἐγγὺς ἐόντας:” | “ἔνθ᾽ ἐμὲ μὲν γλυκὺς ὕπνος ἐπήλυθε κεκμηῶτα”. (Only an apparent exception. The action is interrupted by the “ἐπήλυθε”.)

ἐννῆμαρ ξείνισσε καὶ ἐννέα βοῦς ἱέρευσεν
ἀλλ᾽ ὅτε δὴ δεκάτη ἐφάνη ῥοδοδάκτυλος ἠώς,
καὶ τότε μιν ἐρέεινε καὶ ἤτεε σῆμα ἰδέσθαι

. (Aorist followed by imperfect.)

210. When the imperfect alone is used, the definite statement is an afterthought, or, at all events, the matter is not fully disposed of by the narrator.

καὶ ᾤκει ἐν Μεγάροις πλείω πέντε ἔτη”, LYC.21; He lived at Megara more than five years.

LYC.21(see above).

ISAE. 5.7: “ἐκέκτητο” (plpf.=ipf.) “ἕκαστος δώδεκα ἔτη ἔλαχε”.

LYS. 21.2:τὸν δὲ μεταξὺ χρόνον ἐτριηράρχουν ἑπτὰ ἔτη” .

211. Imperfect and aorist interwoven.

The two tenses are often so combined that the general statement is given by the aorist and the details of the action by the imperfect, or the situation is described by the imperfect and isolated points presented by the aorist.4

[Σωκράτης] τὸ φάρμακον ἔπιεν . . . πῶς ἐτελεύτα”; PLATO , Phaedo, 57 A; Socrates drank the poison. How did he die? (Describe the closing scenes.) “οὐκ ἐξήρκεσε δ᾽ αὐτοῖς ταῦτ᾽ ἐξαμαρτεῖν, ἀλλὰ περὶ τοὺς αὐτοὺς χρόνους ἐπόρθουν μὲν τὴν ἤπειρον, ὕβριζον δὲ τὰς νήσους, ἀνῄρουν δὲ . . . καὶ . . . καθίστασαν, ἐλυμαίνοντο δὲ τὴν Πελοπόννησον καὶ μεστὴν στάσεων καὶ πολέμων ἐποίησαν. ἐπὶ ποίαν γὰρ τῶν πόλεων οὐκ ἐστράτευσαν; περὶ τίνας αὐτῶν οὐκ ἐξήμαρτον; οὐκ Ἠλείων μὲν μέρος τι τῆς χώρας ἀφείλοντο, τὴν δὲ γῆν τὴν Κορινθίων ἔτεμον, . . . διῴκισαν, . . . ἐξεπολιόρκησαν, . . . εἰσέβαλον, οὐδὲν δ᾽ ἐπαύσαντο τοὺς μὲν ἄλλους κακῶς ποιοῦντες, αὑτοῖς δὲ τὴν ἧτταν τὴν ἐν Λεύκτροις παρασκευάζοντες”; ISOC.8.99-100.

ISOC.5.53-4: “οὐ γὰρ ἔφθασαν τῶν ἐχθρῶν κρατήσαντες καὶ πάντων ἀμελήσαντες ἠνώχλουν μὲν . . . ἐτόλμων . . . ἠπείλουν . . . ἀπεστέρουν . . . ἐπόρθουν . . . ἐξέπεμπον . . . τελευτῶντες δὲ πρὸς Φωκέας πόλεμον ἐξήνεγκαν”. 5.87: “ἔσχε γὰρ διττὰς ἐπιθυμίας . . . προῃρεῖτο γὰρ βασιλεῖ τε πολεμεῖν καὶ τοὺς ἑταίρους . . . καταγαγεῖν”. 8.99-100 (see above).

PLATO , Phaedo, 57 A (see above).

XEN. Hell. 2.3.55-6: “ὡς δὲ ταῦτα εἶπεν, εἷλκε μὲν ἀπὸ τοῦ βωμοῦ Σάτυρος, εἷλκον δὲ οἱ ὑπηρέται. δὲ Θηραμένης . . . ἐπεκαλεῖτο . . . . δὲ βουλὴ ἡσυχίαν εἶχεν . . . . οἱ δ᾽ ἀπήγαγον τὸν ἄνδρα κτἑ”.

THUC.3.22(a number of examples of shifting tenses). 4.119.1-3:ταῦτα ξυνέθεντο καὶ ὤμοσαν Λακεδαιμόνιοι καὶ οἱ ξύμμαχοι Ἀθηναίοις καὶ τοῖς ξυμμάχοις . . . ξυνετίθεντο δὲ καὶ ἐσπένδοντο Λακεδαιμονίων μὲν οἵδε . . . μὲν δὴ ἐκεχειρία αὕτη ἐγέ νετο, καὶ ξυνῇσαν ἐν αὐτῇ περὶ τῶν μειζόνων σπονδῶν διὰ παντὸς ἐς λόγους” .

HDT.2.162:τῶν τις Αἰγυπτίων ὄπισθε στὰς περιέθηκέ οἱ κυνέην, καὶ περιτιθεὶς ἔφη ἐπὶ βασιληίῃ περιτιθέναι”. 3.123: “ταῦτα ἀκούσας Πολυκράτης ἥσθη τε καὶ ἐβούλετο”.

HOM. Od. 10.352-67: A string of imperfects followed by a string of aorists.

212. Interchange of imperfect and aorist.

An actual interchange of tenses is not to be admitted except in the case of a few old preterites, such as “ἦν” and “ἔφην”. In the earliest period the typical difference is held fast. The apparent exceptions, then, may be accounted for by undifferentiated forms, by mistaken meanings, by the distributive or intensive use of the imperfect. So “ἔφην”=“ἔφησα”, but in “ἔπεμπον” the thoughts follow the motion,5 and “ἐκέλευον” is “I gave orders,” “urged.”

Κροῖσος ἔπεμπε ἐς Σπάρτην ἀγγέλους . . . οἱ δὲ ἐλθόντες ἔλεγονἔπεμψε ἡμέας Κροῖσος κτἑ”.”, HDT.1.69.

ANTIPH.6.27:εἰ μὲν ἐγὼ τούτων προκαλουμένων μὴ ἠθέλησα τοὺς παραγενομένους ἀποφῆναι, θεράποντας ἐξαιτοῦσι μὴ ἤθελον ἐκδιδόναι . . . αὐτὰ ἂν ταῦτα μέγιστα τεκμήρια κατ᾽ ἐμοῦ ἐποιοῦντο ὅτι ἀληθὴς ἦν αἰτία”.

THUC.2.71.2-3: “Παυσανίας γὰρ . . . ἀπεδίδου Πλαταιεῦσι γῆν καὶ πόλιν τὴν σφετέραν ἔχοντας αὐτονόμους οἰκεῖν κτἑ. τάδε μὲν ἡμῖν πατέρες οἱ ὑμέτεροι ἔδοσαν κτἑ”. 3.58.5:Παυσανίας μὲν γὰρ ἔθαπτεν αὐτοὺς νομίζων ἐν γῇ τε φιλίᾳ τιθέναι καὶ παρ᾽ ἀνδράσι τοιούτοις κτἑ” . 7.20.1-2:περί τε Πελοπόννησον ναῦς τριάκοντα ἔστειλαν καὶ Χαρικλέα τὸν Ἀπολλοδώρου ἄρχοντα, . . . καὶ τὸν Δημοσθένη ἐς τὴν Σικελίαν, ὥσπερ ἔμελλον, ἀπέστελλον” .

HDT.1.69(see above). 3.41: “διζήμενος δὲ εὕρισκε τόδε”. 8.136: “Μαρδόνιος δὲ . . . μετὰ ταῦτα ἔπεμψε ἄγγελον ἐς Ἀθήνας Ἀλέξανδρον τὸν Ἀμύντεω …, ἅμα μὲν ὅτι . . . ἅμα τε Μαρδόνιος πυθόμενος ὅτι πρόξεινός τε εἴη καὶ εὐεργέτης Ἀλέξανδρος ἔπεμπε. . . . τοῖσι δὴ πειθόμενος ἔπεμπε”.

EUR. Or. 552:πατὴρ μὲν έφύτευσέν με, σὴ δ᾽ ἔτικτε παῖς” .

PIND. See B. L. G. on P. 4.114 and 247, and on P. 5.76: “μοῖρά τις ἄγεν” as compared with ibid. 87: “τοὺς Ἀριστοτέλης ἄγαγε”. O. 6.41, on “ἔτικτε”.

HOM. Od. 4.5: “τὴν μὲν Ἀχιλλῆος ῥηξήνορος υἱέι πέμπεν”. Ibid. 8: “τὴν ἄρ᾽ γ̓ ἔνθ̓ ἵπποισι καὶ ἅρμασι πέμπε νέεσθαι”.

Il. 2.42 sqq.: “ἕζετο δ᾽ ὀρθωθείς, μαλακὸν δ᾽ ἔνδυνε χιτῶνα”, | “καλόν νηγάτεον, περὶ δὲ μέγα βάλλετο φᾶρος:” | “ποσσὶ δ᾽ ὕπο λιπαροῖσιν ἐδήσατο καλὰ πέδιλα:” | “ἀμφὶ δ᾽ ἄῤ ὤμοισιν βάλετο ξίφος ἀργυρόηλον, κτἑ”.

αὐτοῦ μιν κατέρυκε, δίδου δ᾽ ὅγε θυγατέρα ἥν,
δῶκε δέ οἱ τιμῆς βασιληίδος ἥμισυ πάσης

. 7.303-5: “ὣς ἄρα φωνήσας δῶκε ξίφος ἀργυρόηλον . . . Αἴας δὲ ζωστῆρα δίδου φοίνικι φαεινόν”.

213. Imperfect of endeavor.

The imperfect is used of attempted and interrupted, of intended and expected actions.6

” (sc. “τὰ πατρῷα”) “πάντ᾽ ἐμὰ ἐγίγνετο”, DEM.39.6; All of which (i. e. my father's estate) was going to be mine.τὸ χωρίον ἐπώλει”, ISAE. 2.28; He was for selling the piece of ground.οὐ παίδων ἕνεκα ἐγάμει”, ISAE. 6.24; It was not for the sake of children that he wanted to marry.ἀπωλλύμην” (= “ᾔδη ἀπολούμενος”), ANTIPHON, 2 “β” 3; I knew (expected) that I was going to be ruined.

DEM.19.46:καὶ ὑμεῖς ἐγελᾶτε”, And you started to laugh. 39.6 (see above). [49], 2: “σφαλέντος μὲν τούτου ἀπώλλυτο καὶ τῷ πατρὶ τῷ ἐμῷ τὸ συμβόλαιον”. 54.33: “τούτῳ δὲ μὴ παρασχομένῳ τούτους μάρτυρας ἦν” (=“ἔμελλεν ἔσεσθαι”) “δήπου λόγος οὐδείς, ἀλλ᾽ ἡλωκέναι παραχρῆμ᾽ ὑπῆρχε σιωπῇ”.

ISAE. 2.28 (see above). 5.44: “ἐγίγνετο”. 6.24 (see above).

ISOC.5.48:μὴ κατορθώσαντες μὲν εὐθὺς ἀπώλλυντο”. 10.36: “ μὲν τὸν δῆμον καθίστη κύριον τῆς πολιτείας, οἱ δὲ μόνον αὐτὸν ἄρχειν ἠξίουν”.

LYS.7.32:ταῦτα δὲ πράξας . . . ἐκέρδαινον μὲν οὐδέν, ἐμαυτὸν δ᾽ εἰς κίνδυνον καθίστην” .

ANTIPHON, 2 “β” 3 (see above). 2 “β” 9: “ἁλοὺς μὲν γὰρ . . . τῆς μὲν οὐσίας ᾔδη ἐκστησόμενος, τοῦ δὲ σώματος καὶ τῆς πόλεως οὐκ ἀπεστερούμην”.

PLATO, Phaedr. 230A:ἀτάρ, ἑταῖρε, . . . ἆρ᾽ οὐ τόδε ἦν τὸ δένδρον, ἐφ̓ ὅπερ ἦγες ἡμᾶς”; But, my friend, isn't this the tree to which you were going to, wanted to, started out to, take us?

XEN. Cyr. 5.5.22: “οὐκοῦν τούτου τυχὼν παρὰ σοῦ οὐδὲν ἤνυτον, εἰ μὴ τούτους πείσαιμι”. Hell. 1.7.7: “τοιαῦτα λέγοντες ἔπειθον τὸν δῆμον . . . ἔδοξε δὲ ἀναβαλέσθαι εἰς ἑτέραν ἐκκλησίαν”.

THUC.4.68.5:ἀσφάλεια δὲ αὐτοῖς μᾶλλον ἐγίγνετο τῆς ἀνοίξεως”.

HDT.1.68: μισθοῦτο παρ᾽ οὐκ ἐκδιδόντος τὴν αὐλήν”. 3.139: “ἐπεθύμησε τῆς χλανίδος καὶ αὐτὴν προσελθὼν ὠνέετο. δὲ Συλοσῶν . . . λέγειἐγὼ ταύτην πωλέω μὲν οὐδενὸς χρήματος, δίδωμι δὲ ἄλλως”.” 8.60: “παρεόντων γὰρ τῶν συμμάχων οὐκ ἔφερέ οἱ κόσμον οὐδένα κατηγορέειν”. 8.63: “ἀπολιπόντων γὰρ Ἀθηναίων οὐκέτι ἐγίνοντο ἀξιόμαχοι οἱ λοιποί”.

AR. Vesp. 116-7: “ἀνέπειθεν αὐτὸν μὴ φορεῖν τριβώνιον” | “μηδ᾽ ἐξιέναι θύραζ̓: δ᾽ οὐκ ἐπείθετο”.

EUR. H. F. 465: “ἀμφέβαλλε” (= “ἔμελλεν ἀμφιβαλεῖν”). I. T. 26-9: “ἐλθοῦσα δ᾽ Αὐλίδ᾽ τάλαιν̓ ὑπὲρ πυρᾶς” | “μεταρσία ληφθεῖσ᾽ ἐκαινόμην ξίφει:” | “ἀλλ᾽ ἐξέκλεψεν” . . . | “Ἄρτεμις”.

HOM. Il. 3.79-80: “τῷ δ᾽ ἐπετοξάζοντο κάρη κομάοντες Ἀχαιοὶ” | “ἰοῖσίν τε τιτυσκόμενοι λάεσσί τ᾽ ἔβαλλον”. 5.318: “ μὲν ἑὸν φίλον υἱὸν ὑπεξέφερεν πολέμοιο”. 5.377: “ὑπεξέφερον”. 9.465: “κατερήτυον”.

See also the imperfects of 214.

214. Imperfect of endeavor combined with aorist of attainment.

Here the aorist often presents a sharp contrast.

ἔπειθον αὐτοὺς καὶ οὓς ἔπεισα τούτους ἔχων ἐπορευόμην”, XEN. Cyr. 5.5.22; I tried to persuade them, and those whom I succeeded in persuading I marched on with.συνετάξαντο καὶ τοῖς ὁπλίταις . . . ἐπῇσαν . . . τοῖς μὲν οὖν ὁπλίταις οὐκ ἐδυνήθησαν προσμεῖξαι”, THUC.4.33.1-2; They formed and tried to charge the hoplites . . . Howbeit they could not get at them.

DEM.32.17:ἐξῆγεν αὐτὸν Πρῶτος . . . οὑτοσὶ δ᾽ οὐκ ἐξήγετο, οὐδ᾽ ἂν ἔφη διαρρήδην ὑπ̓ οὐδενὸς ἐξαχθῆναι”.

PLATO, Theaet. 143A:ἐγραψάμην μὲν τότ᾽ εὐθὺς οἴκαδ᾽ ἐλθὼν ὑπομνήματα, ὕστερον δὲ κατὰ σχολὴν ἀναμιμνῃσκόμενος ἔγραφον”.

XEN. Cyr. 5.5.22 (see above).

THUC.2.4.1-2: “τὰς προσβολὰς προσπίπτοιεν ἀπεωθοῦντο. καὶ δὶς μὲν τρὶς ἀπεκρούσαντο”. 4.33.1-2 (see above).

HDT.1.69:πέμψαντες γὰρ οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι ἐς Σάρδις χρυσὸν ὠνέοντο . . . Κροῖσος δέ σφι ὠνεομένοισι ἔδωκε δωτίνην”.

τῷ δ᾽ ἄρα θυμὸν ἐνὶ στήθεσσιν ἔπειθεν,
καὶ δή μιν τάχ᾽ ἔμελλε θοὰς ἐπὶ νῆας Ἀχαιῶν
δώσειν θεράποντι καταξέμεν: ἀλλ᾽ Ἀγαμέμνων
ἀντίος ἦλθε θέων καὶ ὁμοκλήσας ἔπος ηὔδα:

Then v. 61:ὣς εἰπὼν ἔτρεψεν ἀδελφεόο φρένας ἥρως” .

215. e)/mellon with infinitive.

Expected actions are more commonly expressed by “ἔμελλον” and the infinitive.

ἐκ τίνος τρόπου ἔμελλέ τις αὐτῶν σωθήσεσθαι;LYS. 13.37 ; How was any of them to escape?

LYS. 3.32:τῷ ὑμῶν πιστὸν ὡς . . . ἦγον αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὴν οἰκίαν τὴν Σίμωνος, οὗ πλεῖστα ἔμελλον πράγματα ἕξειν;Ibid. 34:οὗ αὐτὸς ἔμελλον . . . ὀφθήσεσθαι” .

PLATO, Crat. 418B: ἔμελλόν σοι ἐρεῖν”. Phaedr. 228 C:τελευτῶν δὲ ἔμελλε . . . βίᾳ ἐρεῖν”.

XEN. An. 1.8.1: “πλησίον ἦν σταθμὸς ἔνθα ἔμελλε καταλύειν”. Cyr. 3.1.1: “ὀφθήσεσθαι ἔμελλε”.

THUC.1.130.1:ἀλλ᾽ ἔργοις . . . προυδήλου . . . ἔμελλε πράξειν”. 3.115.5:Σοφοκλέα δὲ . . . ἀποπέμψειν ἔμελλον” .

HDT.2.43:τούτων . . . ἔμελλον μνήμην ἕξειν”.

AR. Eq. 267: “λέγειν γνώμην ἔμελλον”. Eccl. 597: “τοῦτο γὰρ ἤμελλον ἐγὼ λέξειν”.

SOPH. Ai. 925-6. O. R. 967:κτενεῖν ἔμελλον πατέρα τὸν ἐμόν” .

PIND. O. 7.61: “μνασθέντι δὲ Ζεὺς ἄμπαλον μέλλεν θέμεν”.

Theogon. HES.468-9: “ὅτε δὴ Δἴ ἔμελλε” . . . | “τέξεσθαι”. 552: “τὰ καὶ τελέεσθαι ἔμελλε”.

HOM. Od. 7.270: “ἔμελλον ἔτι ξυνέσεσθαι ὀιζυῖ”. 9.475-6: “οὐκ ἄρ᾽ ἔμελλες . . . ἔδμεναι”.

Il. 6.52-3:ἔμελλε . . . δώσειν” (parallel with imperfect. See 214).

216. Negative imperfect.

The negative imperfect commonly denotes resistance to pressure or disappointment. Simple negation is aoristic.

οἱ μὲν οὐκ ἦλθον, οἱ δ᾽ ἐλθόντες οὐδὲν ἐποίουν”, DEM.18.151; Some did not come, and those who did come would not do anything.οὐκ ἐπαύεθ᾽ ἄνθρωπος”, 25.57; The wench would not stop.

DEM.18.151(see above). 18.250: “οὐ μετεδίδοτε” (as was expected by my enemies). 21.163: “οὐκ ἀνέβαιν᾽ ἐπὶ τὴν ναῦν”, He would not go on board the ship (as was expected). 25.57 (see above). 32.17: “οὐκ ἐξήγετο” (see 214). 39.18: “οὐκ ἐποιεῖθ̓”. [44], 17: “ μὲν Ἀρχιάδης οὐκ ἐγάμει, δὲ Μειδυλίδης . . . ἔγημεν”.

PLATO, Theaet. 142C:ἠπείγετο οἴκαδε: ἐπεὶ ἔγωγ᾽ ἐδεόμην καὶ συνεβούλευον” (sc. “αὐτοῦ καταλύειν”), “ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ ἤθελεν”.

XEN. Cyr. 1.4.21: “οὐκ ἀνίεσαν, ἀλλ᾽ ᾕρουν τινὰς αὐτῶν”. 4.2.28: “ἐμάχετο οὐδείς, ἀλλ᾽ ἀμαχητὶ ἀπώλλυντο”. Hell. 2.2.11: “οὐ διελέγοντο περὶ διαλλαγῆς”. Ibid. 7.5.21: “τὴν μὲν συντομωτάτην πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους οὐκ ἦγε”.

THUC.2.23.1:οὐκ ἐπεξῇσαν αὐτοῖς οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι ἐς μάχην”. 3.3.1:οὐκ ἀπεδέχοντο . . . τὰς κατηγορίας” . 3. 64.3:οὐκ ἐδέχεσθε” . 4.33.2:οὐκ ἀντεπῇσαν, ἀλλ᾽ ἡσύχαζον” , They would not go out to meet them but kept quiet. 4.110.1:ὡς δ᾽ οὐκ ἐσήκουον” . 7.3.3:οὐκ ἐπῆγε . . . ἀλλ᾽ ἡσύχαζε” .

HDT.1.76:Ἴωνες . . . οὐκ ἐπείθοντο”. 3.50. “διαλεγομένῳ τε οὔ τι προσδιελέγετοHDT., i῾στορέοντί τε λόγον οὐδένα ἐδίδου”. 5.41: “ δὲ Κλεομέυεα τεκοῦσα . . . γυνὴ . . . οὐκέτι ἔτικτε τὸ δεύτερον”.

AR. Vesp. 116-7: “ἀνέπειθεν αὐτὸν μὴ φορεῖν τριβώνιον” | “μηδ᾽ ἐξιέναι θύραζ̓: δ: οὐκ ἐπείθετο” (213).

COM. Pherecr. 2.289: “οὐδεὶς γὰρ ἐδέχετ᾽ οὐδ᾽ ἀνέῳγέ μοι θύραν”.

EUR. Phoen. 405: “τὸ γένος οὐκ βοσκέ με”.

AESCHYL. Ag. 1212:ἔπειθον οὐδέν᾽ οὐδέν, ὡς τάδ᾽ ἤμπλακον”.7

PIND. P. 4.86: “τὸν μὲν οὐ γίνωσκον”.

HOM. Od. 4.12-3: “Ἑλένῃ δὲ θεοὶ γόνον οὐκέτ᾽ ἔφαινον”, | “ἐπεὶ δὴ τὸ πρῶτον ἐγείνατο παῖδ᾽ ἐρατεινήν”.

Il. 2.779: “οὐδ᾽ ἐμάχοντο”. 6.161-2:τὸν οὔ τι πεῖθ᾽ ἀγαθὰ φρονέοντα” . (““ παρατατικὸς τὴν πολλάκις τοῦτο λέγουσαν ἐδήλωσε”.”—Schol. BL.) 16.102: “οὐκέτ᾽ ἔμιμνε”.

217. The imperfect as the tense of past impressions is used:

  • In descriptions of scenery
  • Of points previously assumed
  • Of views previously held
  • Of sudden appreciation of real state of affairs

Imperfect in description of scenery.—In descriptions of scenery as well as of events.

τὸ δ᾽ Ἑλληνικὸν εἰς Λεύκοφρυν” (sc. “ἀπῆλθεν”), “ἔνθα ἦν Ἀρτέμιδος . . . ἱερὸν μάλα ἅγιον”, XEN. Hell. 3.2.19.

218. Imperfect of points assumed.

Of points previously assumed in argument.

ἐν μέσῳ γὰρ αὐτῶν δημοτικὸς ἦν”, PLATO, Rpb. 587C; The democrat was (as we saw) in the middle.

PLATO , De Iusto, 373 C-D: “μέτρον” (“σταθμός, ἀριθμός, λόγος”) “γὰρ ἦν ταῦτ᾽ ἐκρίνετο”. Legg. 867 D:ἅτερος ἔφευγε τὰ δύο” (sc. “ἔτη”), The other was to be in exile (as we have seen) the two years. Rpb. 522 A:ἀλλ᾽ ἦν ἐκείνη” (sc. “μουσική”) . . . “ἀντίστροφος τῆς γυμναστικῆς, εἰ μέμνησαι”. 587 C (see above).

219. Imperfect of former views.

Of views that were once fondly entertained.

τοῦτο . . . οὐ διδακτὸν ᾤμην εἶναι”, XEN. Oec. 12.10; I thought that this was not to be taught.

ISAE. 7.1-2: “ᾤμην μέν, ἄνδρες, προσήκειν οὐ τὰς τοιαύτας ἀμφισβητεῖσθαι ποιήσεις κτἑ. ἔοικε δ᾽ οὐδὲν προὔργου τοῦτο εἶναι”.

XEN. Oec. 12.10 (see above).

220. Imperfect of sudden appreciation of real state of affairs.—imperfect for present.

Of sudden appreciation of a real state of things, regularly with “ἆρα” (“ἄρα”).

οὐ γὰρ τοῦτ᾽ ἦν εὐδαιμονία, ὡς ἔοικε, κακοῦ ἀπαλλαγή”, PLATO, Gorg. 478C. “ΔΙΚ. τουτὶ τί ἦν τὸ πρᾶγμα; ΜΕΓ. χοῖρος ναὶ Δία”, AR. Ach. 767; What's all this? A pig, by Jove.

PLATO, Conv. 213B: Ἡράκλεις, τουτὶ τί ἦν; Σωκράτης οὗτος”; Gorg. 478 C (see above). Phaedr. 227 B:ἀτὰρ Λυσίας ἦν, ὡς ἔοικεν, ἐν ἄστει”. Ibid. 230 A: “ἆρ᾽ οὐ τόδε ἦν τὸ δένδρον, ἐφ̓ ὅπερ ἦγες ἡμᾶς”; Isn't this the tree, etc.? (213).

XEN. Cyr. 1.3.10: “τοῦτ᾽ ἄῤ ἦν ἰσηγορἰα”. Ibid. 1.4.27: “ταῦτ᾽ ἄρα . . . καὶ ἐνεώρας μοι”. Oec. 1.20: “λῦπαι ἄρα ἦσαν ἡδοναῖς περιπεπεμμέναι”, So they turn out to be (are after all) pains sugar-coated with pleasure.

HDT.3.65:ἐν τῇ γὰρ ἀνθρωπηίῃ φύσι οὐκ ἐνῆν ἄρα τὸ μέλλον γίνεσθαι ἀποτράπειν”. 4.64: “δέρμα δὲ ἀνθρώπου καὶ παχὺ καὶ λαμπρὸν ἦν ἄρα”.

AR. Ach. 767 (see above). Eq. 1170: “ὡς μέγαν ἄρ᾽ εἶχες, πότνια, τὸν δάκτυλον”. Vesp. 183-4: “τουτὶ τί ἦν”; | “τίς εἶ ποτ᾽, ὦνθρωπ̓, ἐτεόν”; Ibid. 451: “σὺ δ᾽ ἀχάριστος ἦσθ̓ ἄρα”.

EUR. H. F. 339-41: “ Ζεῦ, μάτην ἄρ᾽ ὁμόγαμόν ς᾿ ἐκτησάμην”, | “μάτην δὲ παιδὸς γονἔ ἐμοῦ σ᾽ ἐκλῄζομεν:” | “σὺ δ᾽ ἦσθ̓ ἄῤ ἧσσον ᾿δόκεις εἶναι φίλος”. I. A. 404: “αἰαῖ, φίλους ἄρ᾽ οὐχὶ κεκτήμην τάλας”.

THEOGN. 700: “τῶν δ᾽ ἄλλων οὐδὲν ἄῤ ἦν ὄφελος”. 788: “οὕτως οὐδὲν ἄρ᾽ ἦν φίλτερον ἄλλο πάτρης”.

HOM. Od. 4.333-4: “ πόποι, μάλα δὴ κρατερόφρονος ἀνδρὸς ἐν εὐνῇ” | “ἤθελον εὐνηθῆναι ἀνάλκιδες αὐτοὶ ἐόντες”. 9.230: “οὐδ᾽ ἄῤ ἔμελλ̓ ἑτάροισι φανεὶς ἐρατεινὸς ἔσεσθαι”. 475-6 (215). 11.553: “οὐκ ἄρ᾽ ἔμελλες”. 13.209-10: “ πόποι, οὐκ ἄρα πάντα νοήμονες οὐδὲ δίκαιοι” | “ἦσαν Φαιήκων ἡγήτορες”.

Il. 4.155: “θάνατόν νύ τοι ὅρκἰ ἔταμνον”. 5.205: “τὰ δέ μ᾽ οὐκ ἄῤ ἔμελλον ὀνήσειν”. 16.33: “οὐκ ἄρα σοί γε πατὴρ ἦν ἱππότα Πηλεύς”.

221. Origin of modal e)/dei, e)xrh=n, etc.

From this use of the imperfect comes, perhaps, the use of “ἔδει, ἐχρῆν”, and the like, with the infinitive, in opposition to the infinitive. “ἔδει σε ποιεῖν τοῦτο” (“ἀλλ᾽ οὐ ποιεῖς”), You ought to do this (but are not doing it). The unfulfilled duty is a surprise. See 364.

222. Imperfect of unity of time.

As the present is used of actions that are continued from the past into the present (see 202), so the imperfect is used of actions that are continued into the past from a remoter past.

ἐθαύμαζον πάλαι”, AR. AV. 1670; I had long been astonished at it (i.e. before you asked me the question).

PLATO, Conv. 209C: πάλαι ἐκύει τίκτει”.

HDT.4.1:αἱ γὰρ τῶν Σκυθέων γυναῖκες, ὥς σφι οἱ ἄνδρες ἀπῆσαν χρόνον πολλόν, ἐφοίτεον παρὰ τοὺς δούλους”.

AR. Nub. 1311-2:οἶμαι γὰρ αὐτὸν αὐτίχ᾽ εὑρήσειν ὅπερ πάλαι ποτ᾽ ἐπῄτει” . Av. 1670 (see above). Lys. 1033:νὴ Δί᾽ ὤνησάς γέ μ᾽, ὡς πάλαι γέ μ᾽ ἐφρεωρύχει” .

PIND. P. 4.25-7: “δώδεκα δὲ πρότερον ἁμέρας . . . φέρομεν . . . εἰνάλιον δόρυ”.

HOM. Od. 23.29: “Τηλέμαχος δ᾽ ἄρα μιν πάλαι ᾔδεεν” (=Impf.) “ἔνδον ἐόντα” (dudum noverat).

Il. 23.871: “ἀτὰρ δὴ ὀιστὸν ἔχεν πάλαι”, iam sagittam tenebat dudum.

223. This overlapping use of the imperfect (comp. 208) is especially important in correlated temporal sentences. See Temporal Sentences.

ἐπειδὴ δὲ καλῶς αὐτῷ εἶχεν, ἐκεῖνος μὲν ἀπιὼν ᾤχετο, ἐγὼ δὲ ἐκάθευδον,LYS.1.23 ; After he had (thought he had, had had) enough, he took himself off and I slept (proceeded to go to sleep).

224. Imperfect apparently used as a pluperfect.

Of course in those verbs in which the present is used as a perfect (204), the imperfect is used as a pluperfect.

ἔφευγεν Ξενοφῶν,XEN. An. 5.3.7 ; Xenophon was in exile, had been banished.

PLATO, Menex. 242E:μεθ᾽ ὦν τότε τοὺς βαρβάρους ἐνίκων, τούτους νικῶντες ἰδίᾳ”.

225. Imperfect of h(/kein and oi)/xesqai used aoristically.

ἧκον” and “ᾠχόμην” are often used aoristically.

ἐπεὶ δὲ ἧκε τετάρτῳ μηνί, ἀπήγγειλεν κτἑ.,XEN. Hell. 2.2.17 (208). “ᾤχετο δὲ πρὸς θεόν”, PIND. N. 7.40.


Perfect Tense

226. The perfect tense expresses completion in the present, and hence is sometimes called the present perfect.

ἀκηκόατε, ἑωράκατε, πεπόνθατε,LYS. 12.100 ; You have heard, you have seen. you have felt.ἐμπεπλήκασιν ὑμῶν τὰ ὦτα”, PLATO, Apol. 23E; They have filled your ears.τέθαπται . . . Κίμων πρὸ τοῦ ἄστεος”, HDT.6.103; Kimon (has been, is) lies buried before the city.

DEM.3.22:προπέποται . . . τὰ τῆς πόλεως πράγματα”. 4.48: “πρέσβεις πέπομφεν ὡς βασιλέα”. 6.37: “ἱκανῶς εἴρηται”.

AESCHIN.2.147:ἔτη γὰρ ἤδη βεβίωκεν ἐνενήκοντα καὶ τέτταρα”. 3.186: “ἐνταῦθα ἐν Μαραθῶνι μάχη γἐγραπται”.

PLATO, Apol. 23E (see above). Gorg. 448 A:οὐδείς μέ πω ἠρώτηκε καινὸν οὐδὲν πολλῶν ἐτῶν”. Meno 93 A:ἔμοιγε . . . καὶ εἶναι δοκοῦσιν ἐνθάδε ἀγαθοὶ τὰ πολιτικά, καὶ γεγονέναι ἔτι οὐχ ἧττον εἶναι”. Prot. 314 D:οὐκ ἀκηκόατε, ὅτι οὐ σχολὴ αὐτῷ”;

XEN. Hell. 6.5.37: “δένδρα ἐκκεκόφασι καὶ οἰκἰας κατακεκαύκασι καὶ χρήματα καὶ πρόβατα διηρπάκασι”.

HDT.6.103(see above). 7.162: “ἐκ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ τὸ ἔαρ . . . ἐξαραίρηται”.

SOPH. Ai. 480:πάντ᾽ ἀκήκοας λόγον” .

PIND. O. 10.1-3: “τὸν Ὀλυμπιονίκαν ἀνάγνωτέ μοι” | . . . “πόθι φρενὸς” | “ἐμᾶς γέγραπται” (stands written).

HOM. Od. 2.63-4: “οὐ γὰρ ἔτ᾽ ἀνσχετὰ ἔργα τετεύχαται, οὐδ᾽ ἔτι καλῶς” | “οἶκος ἐμὸς διόλωλε”.

Il. 1.125: “ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν πολίων ἒξ ἐπράθομεν, τὰ δέδασται”.

227. The perfect looks at both ends of an action. The time between these ends is considered as a present. When one end is considered, the present is used; when the other, the aorist. Hence present and perfect are often used side by side, and the translation into English is often present (228); the aorist is the shorthand of the perfect (248-51); and the perfect is sometimes used even of a past action that is dated (233).

228. Perfect of maintenance of result.

The perfect is largely used in Greek for the maintenance of the result, and the translation into English is often present: “κέκλημαι”, my name is;μέμνημαι”, I have recalled, I remember;κέκτημαι”, I have got, I own;εἴθισμαι”, I have made it my rule, I am accustomed.

καλὸν . . . τέχνημα ἄρα κέκτησαι, εἴπερ κέκτησαι”, PLATO, Prot. 319A; A fine contrivance is that you have got, to be sure, IF you have got it.

AESCHIN.3.144:συνείθισθε ἤδη τἀδικήματα τὰ τούτου ἀκούειν”.

ANTIPHON, 5.54: “τέθνηκεν ἀνήρ”.

PLATO, Prot. 319A (see above). Tim. 23 B:ἕνα γῆς κατακλυσμὸν μέμνησθε πολλῶν ἔμπροσθεν γεγονότων”.

XEN. Oec. 9.4: “πρὸς μεσημβρίαν ἀναπέπταται” (sc. “ οἰκία”).

THUC.3.82.7:ῥᾷον δ᾽ οἱ πολλοὶ κακοῦργοι ὄντες δεξιοὶ κέκληνται ἀμαθεῖς ἀγαθοί”.

HDT.2.47:ὗν δὲ Αἰγύπτιοι μιαρὸν ἥγηνται θηρίον εἶναι”. 4.28: “τέρας νενόμισται”. 6.103 (226).

AR. Ach. 993: “ πάνυ γερόντιον ἴσως νενόμικάς με σύ”;

SOPH. El. 1101:Αἴγισθον ἔνθ᾽ ᾤκηκεν ἱστορῶ πάλαι”.

PIND. P. 4.248: “πολλοῖσι δ᾽ ἅγημαι σοφίας ἑτέροις”.

SAPPHO, 2.9-10: “ἀλλὰ καμ μὲν γλῶσσα ἔαγε, λέπτον δ᾽” | “αὔτικα χρῷ πῦρ ὐπαδεδρόμακεν”.

HES. Theog. 726: “ἐλήλαται”. 727: “κέχυται”. 728: “πεφύασι”. 730: “κεκρύφαται”.

HOM. Od. 5.412: “λισσὴ δ᾽ ἀναδέδρομε πέτρη”. 6.44-5: “ἀλλὰ μάλ᾽ αἴθρη” | “πέπταται ἀννέφελος, λευκὴ δ᾽ ἐπιδέδρομεν αἴγλη”.

229. Intensive perfect.

Not to be confounded with this use, which has many English analogies, is the survival of the old intensive perfects, chiefly in verbs of sound and verbs of emotion.

Verbs of Sound (Onomatopoetic Verbs):

Most of these are poetic or popular. “κέκραγα”, I am bawling, bawling;σεσίγηκα”, I am mum.

λαβὼν μὲν σεσίγηκας, ἀναλώσας δὲ κέκραγας”, AESCHIN.3.218; When you get money you are mum, when you have spent it you are in full cry.

AESCHIN.3.218(see above).

HDT.4.183:τετρίγασι κατά περ αἱ νυκτερίδες”.

AR. Vesp. 944: “τί σεσιώπηκας”;

SOPH. Tr. 1072:βέβρυχα κλάων”.

HES. O. et D. 207: “δαιμονίη, τί λέληκας”;

HOM. Od. 5.411-2: “ἀμφὶ δὲ κῦμα” | “βέβρυχεν ῥόθιον”.

Il. 4.433-5: “ὄιες . . . ἑστήκασιν . . . ἀζηχὲς μεμακυῖαι”. 10.362: “μεμηκώς”. 17.264: “βέβρυχεν μέγα κῦμα”.

230. Emotional Perfects:

δέδια”, I am in a perfect tremble, I quiver and quake.δέδἰ ἄνδρες Ἀθηναῖοι μὴ τούτοις μετ᾽ ἐκείνου πολεμεῖν ἀναγκασθῶμεν”, DEM.14.4.

DEM.4.8:μισεῖ τις ἐκεῖνον καὶ δέδι”(“ε”) . . . “καὶ φθονεῖ . . . κατέπτηχε μέντοι πάντα νῦν”. 14.4 (see above). 25.1: “ἓν δὲ τεθαύμακα”.

PLATO , Phaedo 64 D:φαίνεταί σοι φιλοσόφου ἀνδρὸς εἶναι ἐσπουδακέναι περὶ τὰς ἡδονὰς καλουμένας”; Theaet. 161 B-C: “οἶσθ᾽ οὖν . . . θαυμάζω . . .; . . . τὴν δ᾽ ἀρχὴν τοῦ λόγου τεθαύμακα”.

SOPH. Ai. 139:μέγαν ὄκνον ἔχω καὶ πεφόβημαι” .

SIMON. AM. 7.28: “τὴν μὲν γελᾷ τε καὶ γέγηθεν ἡμέρην”.

TYRT.12.28:ἀργαλέῳ τε πόθῳ πᾶσα κέκηδε πόλις”.

HOM. Od. 6.106: “γέγηθε δέ τε φρένα Λητώ”.

Il. 10.93-4: “οὐδέ μοι ἦτορ” | “ἔμπεδον, ἀλλ᾽ ἀλαλύκτημαι”.

231. Verbs of Sight:

δέδορκα”, I look. The classification cannot always be exact. “τεθαύμακα”, I am astonished, is also “τεθαύμακα”, I am agaze.

PIND. O. 1.96-7: “τὸ δὲ κλέος” | “τηλόθεν δέδορκε” (intr.) “τᾶν Ὀλυμπιάδων”.

HES. O. et D. 508: “μέμυκε δὲ γαῖα καὶ ὕλη”.

HOM. Od. 19.446: “πῦρ δ᾽ ὀφθαλμοῖσι δεδορκώς”.

So also the solitary Verb of Smell, for which see HOM. Od. 9.210.

232. Verbs of Gesture, Expression, and the like:

ἐσκυθρωπάκασι”, DEM.54.34; They are grim and grum.δεδραγμένος”, grimly gripping.κέχηνα”, I am all agape.

DEM.54.34(see above).

AR. Eq. 755: “κέχηνεν”. 1118-9: “πρὸς τόν τε λέγοντ᾽ ἀεὶ” | “κέχηνας”.

HES. Theog. 826: “γλώσσῃσιν δνοφερῇσι λελιχμότες”.

HOM. Od. 11.222: “ψυχὴ . . . πεπότηται”.

Il. 2.90: “πεποτήαται”, They are all a-flutter. 13.393: “κόνιος δεδραγμένος αἱματοέσσης”, With his fists full of bloody dust.

For the use of the Aorist as a Perfect, see 248-51.

233. Perfect of an action that is dated.

The Greek perfect may be used of a past action even when it is dated.

ἐπιδέδεικται τότε”, ISAE. 3.7; It has been shown (nay, was shown) then.

LYCURG.103:Ἕκτωρ γὰρ τοῖς Τρωσὶ παρακελευόμενος ὑπὲρ τῆς πατρίδος τάδε εἴρηκεν”.

DEM.21.7:ὕβρισμαι μὲν ἐγὼ καὶ προπεπηλάκισται τὸ σῶμα τοὐμὸν τότε, ἀγωνιεῖται δὲ καὶ κριθήσεται τὸ πρᾶγμα νυνί”. 38.8: “πάντα [ταῦτ᾽] ἀφεῖται τότε”.

ISAE. 3.7 (see above).

234. Perfect for future perfect.

As the present may be used rhetorically for the future, so the perfect may be used for the future perfect.

εἰ γὰρ προλείψεις μ”(“ε”) . . ., “οἰχόμεσθα” (“οἰχόμεσθα” is a practical perfect), EUR. Or. 304-5; If thou shalt abandon me, I am gone (lost).

AESCHIN.1.90:εἰ γὰρ μὲν πρᾶξις αὕτη ἔσται . . ., δὲ . . . εἰδὼς . . . ἔνοχος ἔσται . . ., δὲ κρινόμενος . . . ἀξιώσει . . ., ἀνῄρηται νόμος καὶ ἀλήθεια, καὶ δέδεικται φανερὰ ὁδός, δἰ ἧς κτἑ”.

ANDOC.1.146:ἐάν με νυνὶ διαφθείρητε, οὐκ ἔστιν ὑμῖν ἔτι λοιπὸς τοῦ γένους τοῦ ἡμετέρου οὐδείς, ἀλλ᾽ οἴχεται πᾶν πρόρριζον”.

PLATO, Hipparch. 231C-D:φέρε γάρ, ἐάν τις χρυσίου σταθμὸν ἥμισυν ἀναλώσας διπλάσιον λάβῃ ἀργυρίου, κέρδος ζημίαν εἴληφεν” (=“εἰληφὼς ἔσται”);

εἰ γὰρ προλείψεις μ᾽ προσεδρίᾳ νόσον
κτήσῃ τιν̓, οἰχόμεσθα

(see above).

SOPH. O. R. 1166: “ὄλωλας, εἴ σε ταῦτ᾽ ἐρήσομαι πάλιν”. Ph. 75-6: “ὥστ᾽ εἴ με τόξων ἐγκρατὴς αἰσθήσεται”, | “ὄλωλα καὶ σὲ προσδιαφθερῶ ξυνών”.

On the Periphrastic Perfect, see 286-8.

On the Gnomic Perfect, see 257.


Pluperfect Tense

235. The Pluperfect denotes completion in the past. It may be defined as the perfect of the past, and hence is naturally associated with the imperfect. It is more distinctly than in Latin and in English the tense of fixed condition.

σπανιώτερα τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἦν: τὰ μὲν γὰρ ἀνήλωτο, τὰ δὲ διήρπαστο, τὰ δὲ ἐξεκέχυτο, τὰ δὲ κατεκέκαυτο”, XEN. Hell. 6.5.50; Provisions were rather scarce; for part had been used up, part plundered, part spilled, part burned.

LYS.13.20: δὲ βουλὴ . . . διέφθαρτο καὶ ὀλιγαρχίας ἐπεθύμει” . 13.52:πλοῖα παρεσκεύαστο καὶ οἱ ἐγγυηταὶ ἕτοιμοι ἦσαν” .

XEN. Cyr. 3.2.11: “ἐπεὶ δὲ ἠριστήκεσαν, . . . εὐθὺς ἐτείχιζε φρούριον”. Hell. 1.1.32: “ἐπὶ δὲ τὸ ναυτικόν, ἐκεῖνος ἠθροίκει . . ., εξεπέμφθη Κρατησιππίδας”. Ibid. 1.3.20: “ἐπεὶ δὲ αὐτοῖς παρεσκεύαστο, νυκτὸς ἀνοίξαντες τὰς πύλας . . . εἰσήγαγον τὸ στράτευμα”, When they had all their preparations made, they opened the gates by night and introduced the army. Ibid. 6.5.21: “ἐκ γὰρ τῆς πρόσθεν ἀθυμίας ἐδόκει τι ἀνειληφέναι τὴν πόλιν, ὅτι καὶ ἐνεβεβλήκει εἰς τὴν Ἀρκαδίαν καὶ δῃοῦντι τὴν χώραν οὐδεὶς ἠθελήκει μάχεσθαι”. Ibid. 6.5.23: “οἱ . . . Θηβαῖοι καλῶς σφίσιν ᾤοντο ἔχειν, ἐπεὶ ἐβεβοηθήκεσαν μέν, πολέμιον δὲ οὐδένα ἔτι ἑώρων ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ”. Ibid. 6.5.50 (see above). Ibid. 7.5.21: “ἐπεί γε μὴν έτέτακτο αὐτῷ τὸ στράτευμα . . ., τὴν . . . συντομωτάτην πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους οὐκ ἦγε”.

THUC.2.59.1:ἠλλοίωντο τὰς γνώμας”. 4.29.2:ὥρμηντο διακινδυνεῦσαι” .

HDT.1.85: Κροῖσος τὸ πᾶν ἐς αὐτὸν ἐπεποιήκεε . . . καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐς Δελφοὺς περὶ αὐτοῦ ἐπεπόμφεε”. 8.72: “Ὀλύμπια δὲ καὶ Κάρνεια παροιχώκεε ἤδη”.

PIND. O. 6.53-4:ἀλλ᾽ ἐν κέκρυπτο γὰρ σχοίνῳ” .

HES. Sc. 143: “ἠλήλαντο”. 154: “τέτυκτο”. 208: “ἐτέτυκτο”. 218: “ἐστήρικτο”. 288: “ἐστάλατ”(“ο”).

HYMN. HOM. I, 91-102: “Λητὼ δ᾽ ἐννῆμάρ τε καὶ ἐννέα νύκτας ἀέλπτοις” | “ὠδίνεσσι πέπαρτο . . . αἳ δ᾽ Ἶριν προὔπεμψαν κτἑ”. (cf. 208).

HOM. Od. 4.132: “χρυσῷ δ᾽ ἔπι χείλεα κεκράαντο”. 4.135: “τετάνυστο”.

Il. 5.387-90: “χαλκέῳ δ᾽ ἐν κεράμῳ δέδετο τρεῖς καὶ δέκα μῆνας”. | . . . “ δ᾽ ἐξέκλεψεν Ἄρηα” (cf. 208). 10.155-6: “εὗδ᾽, ὑπὸ δ᾽ ἔστρωτο ῥινὸν βοὸς ἀγραύλοιο”, | “αὐτὰρ ὑπὸ κράτεσφι τάπης τετάνυστο φαεινός”. 10.540: “οὔ πω πᾶν εἴρητο ἔπος, ὅτ᾽ ἄῤ ἤλυθον αὐτοί”.

For the Greek use of the Aorist, where English and Latin would use the Pluperfect, see 253.

236. Pluperfect of rapid relative completion.

The pluperfect is sometimes used to denote rapid relative completion. The later Greek writers often abuse it.8

τούτων γνωσθέντων οὐδεμίαν διατριβὴν ἐποιησάμην, ἀλλ᾽ εὐθὺς παρεκέκληντο μὲν οὓς εἶπον, προειρηκὼς δ᾽ ἦν αὐτοῖς, ἐφ̓ συνεληλυθότες ἦσαν, ἀνέγνωστο δ᾽ λόγος, ἐπῃνημένος δ᾽ ἦν καὶ τεθορυβημένος καὶ τετυχηκὼς ὧνπερ οἱ κατορθοῦντες ἐν ταῖς ἐπιδείξεσιν”, ISOC.12.233.

ISOC.12.233(see above).

XEN. Cyr. 1.4.5: “ταχὺ μὲν . . . ἀφίκετο . . ., ταχὺ δὲ παρῄει . . ., ταχὺ δὲ τὰ ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ θηρία ἀνηλώκει . . . ὥστε Ἀστυάγης οὐκέτ᾽ εἶχεν αὐτῷ συλλέγειν θηρία”.

THUC.4.47.1:ὡς δὲ . . . ἐκπλέοντες ελήφθησαν, ἐλέλυντό τε αἱ σπονδαὶ καὶ τοῖς Κερκυραίοις παρεδέδοντο οἱ πάντες”.

HDT.1.79:ὡς δέ οἱ ταῦτα ἔδοξε, καὶ ἐποίεε κατὰ τάχος: ἐλάσας γὰρ τὸν στρατὸν ἐς τὴν Λυδίην αὐτὸς ἄγγελος Κροίσῳ ἐληλύθεε”.

HOM. Od. 1.360: “ μὲν θαμβήσασα πάλιν οἶκόνδε βεβήκει”.

Il. 4.134-6: “ἐν δ᾽ ἔπεσε ζωστῆρι ἀρηρότι πικρὸς ὀιστός:” | “διὰ μὲν ἂρ ζωστῆρος ὲλήλατο δαιδαλέοιο” | “καὶ διὰ θώρηκος πολυδαιδάλου ἠρήρειστο”. 13.593-5: “χεῖρα . . . Μενέλαος” | “τὴν βάλεν, ῤ̔ ἔχε τόξον ἐύξοον: ἐν δ᾽ ἄρα τόξῳ” | “ἀντικρὺ διὰ χειρὸς ἐλήλατο χάλκεον ἔγχος”.

237. Pluperfect used as an imperfect.

When the perfect is used as a present (228), the pluperfect is used as an imperfect.

κακῶν Ἰλιὰς περιειστήκει Θηβαίους”, DEM.19.148; An Iliad of woes was encompassing Thebes (the Thebans).ἐκεκράγεσαν . . . τοὺς πρυτάνεις ἀφιέναι”, AR. Eq. 674; They kept on bawling “The prytanes must dismiss.”

DEM.19.148(see above).

PLATO, Phaedr. 233D:οὔτ᾽ ἂν πιστοὺς φίλους ἐκεκτήμεθα”. Theaet. 198 D: πάλαι ἐκέκτητο”.

THUC.3.70.3:ἦν γὰρ . . . ἐθελοπρόξενός τε τῶν Ἀθηναίων καὶ τοῦ δήμου προειστήκει”.

AR. Ach. 10: “ὅτε δὴ ᾿κεχήνη” (sat with mouth open) “προσδοκῶν τὸν Αἰσχύλον”. Eq. 674 (see above).

HES. Sc. 148: “δεινὴ ἔρις πεπότητο” (was afly, “flying all abroad”) “κορύσσουσα κλόνον ἀνδρῶν”. 155: “δεδήει”. 191: “ἕστασαν”. 269: “εἱστήκει”. 274: “ὀρώρει”.

HOM. Od. 9.210: “ὀσμὴ . . . ὀδώδει”.

Il. 8.68: “ἠέλιος μέσον οὐρανὸν ἀμφιβεβήκει”, The sun stood astride the midheaven.


Aorist Tense

238. The Aorist states a past action without reference to its duration simply as a thing attained. It is one of the two great narrative tenses of the Greek language, and is best studied in connection with the other, the imperfect. Examples are found everywhere.9 (Upshot Aorist.)

Κόνων . . . ἐνίκησε τὴν ἐν Κνίδῳ ναυμαχίαν . . . Ἰφικράτης ἀνεῖλε τὴν Λακεδαιμονίων μόραν”, DIN.1.75; Conon gained the (great) naval victory of (at) Cnidus, Iphicrates annihilated the Lacedaemonian mora.

239. Ingressive aorist.

The aorist often appears as the point of origin. This is due to the character of the verbs, which are chiefly denominative. Hence this aorist, which is called the ingressive aorist, is usually the first aorist. (Outset Aorist.)

ἐβασίλευσε . . . Γύγης”, HDT.1.13; Gyges became king.

PLATO, Euthyd. 276D:ἐγέλασάν τε καὶ ἐθορύβησαν”, They set up a laugh and broke out into applause.10

XEN. Hell. 2.2, [24]: “Διονύσιος . . . ἐτυράννησε” (=“τύραννος ἐγένετο”), D. became tyrant.

THUC.1.4:ἦρξέ τε καὶ οἰκιστὴς . . . ἐγένετο”, He acquired the rule and became founder.

HDT.1.13(see above). 1.19: “ἐνόσησε Ἀλυάττης”, Alyattes fell sick. 7.45: “ Ξέρξης . . . ἐδάκρυσε”, Xerxes burst into tears.

AR. Eccl. 431: “εἶτ᾽ ἐθορύβησαν κἀνέκραγον ὡς εὖ λέγοι”.

AESCHYL. P.V. 235:ἐγὼ δ᾽ ἐτόλμης”(“α”).

PIND. O. 7.37: “ἀνορούσαισ᾽ ἀλάλαξεν ὑπερμάκει βοᾷ” (gave a wild halloo).

HOM. Il. 3.259: “ῥίγησεν” (gave a shudder) “δ᾽ γέρων”. 11.546: “τρέσσε”, He took to flight.

240. So with the moods and verbals: “ἐὰν νοσήσῃ”, if he falls sick;μὴ νοσήσαιμι”, may I not fall sick;νοσῆσαι”, to fall sick;νοσήσας”, having fallen sick=“εἰς νόσον ἐμπεσών”.

ANTIPHON, 2 “β” 1: “ὅταν . . . νοσήσωσιν, ὑγιεῖς γενόμενοι σῴζονται”.

PLATO , Critias, 111B: “νοσήσαντος σώματος ὀστᾶ”. Timae. 84 A:τὸ δὲ δὴ σάρκας ὀστοῖς ξυνδοῦν ὁπότ᾽ ἂν νοσήσῃ ῾βεξομες δισεασεδ̓ . . . καταψήχεται” .

THUC.2.58.2:ὥστε καὶ τοὺς προτέρους στρατιώτας νοσῆσαι”.

AR. Pl. 569: “πλουτήσαντες” (257). 834-6: “κἀγὼ μὲν ᾤμην οὓς τέως” | “εὐηργέτησα δεομένους ἕξειν φίλους” | “ὄντως βεβαίους, εἰ δεηθείην ποτέ”.

AESCHYL. P.V. 203:σπεύδοντες, ὡς Ζεὺς μήποτ᾽ ἄρξειεν” (become lord) “θεῶν”.

241. Ingressive translation of second aorist.

Ingressive translations are, of course, possible with a number of second aorists, as “ἔστην”, I took a stand,ἔβην”, I took a step; but there is not the same contrast between state and entrance upon a state as in the first aorist, not the same “πόρευσις εἰς τὸ εἶναι”, as it is called by a late writer, [PLATO ], Deff. 411 A. Especially common is the ingressive translation of “ἔσχον. ἔχω”, I hold,ἔσχον”, I took hold;ἔχω”, I possess, I am possessor, have,ἔσχον”, I took possession, I got. This is all the more natural as “ἔχω” connotes a state and is often used in periphrases with verbal nouns. “αἰτίαν ἔσχον”=“ᾐτιάθην”, got blamed (see 178).

δὲ Κυαξάρης . . . τὴν βασιλείαν ἔσχε”=“ἐβασίλευσε”=“βασιλεὺς ἐγένετο”, XEN. Cyr. 1.5.2; Cyaxares succeeded to the throne.

XEN. Cyr. 1.5.2 (see above).

THUC.1.12.3:Δωριῆς . . . ὀγδοηκοστῷ ἔτει ξὺν Ἡρακλείδαις Πελοπόννησον ἔσχον” (cf. “ᾤκησαν” ibid.). 1.103.4:καὶ ἔσχον Ἀθηναῖοι Μέγαρα καὶ Πηγάς” . 4.49:αὐτοὶ Ἀκαρνᾶνες οἰκήτορες ἀπὸ πάντων ἔσχον τὸ χωρίον” . 4.95.3:τὴν Βοιωτίαν ποτὲ ἔσχον” . 8.23.3:τοὺς ἀντιστάντας μάχῃ νικήσαντες τὴν πόλιν ἔσχον” . 8.106.1:τὴν . . . νίκην ταύτην . . . ἔσχον” , They gained this victory.

AR. Ran. 1035: “τιμὴν καὶ κλέος ἔσχεν”.

PIND. O. 2.10: “ἱερὸν ἔσχον οἴκημα ποταμοῦ”. P. 1.65: “ἔσχον δ᾽ Ἀμύκλας ὄλβιοι”. 3.24: “ἔσχε τοιαύταν μεγάλαν ἀϝάταν” (cf. HOM. Il. 16.685: “μέγ᾽ ἀάσθη”).

242. So with the moods and verbals:

ἡγούμενοι, εἰ ταύτην” (sc. “τὴν ἡμετέραν πόλιν”) “σχοῖεν, ῥᾳδίως καὶ τἆλλα ἕξειν”, THUC.6.33.2.τὴν ἐπωνυμίαν . . . σχεῖν”, Ibid. 1.9.2. “τῷ . . . σχόντι γυναῖκα” =“γήμαντι”, Ibid. 2.29.3; Who took to wife.

243. Aorist of actions of long duration.

The aorist is often used for rapid, individual action. But it is rather the tense of momentum than the tense of momentary action. No matter how long the action, it may be represented by the aorist, and it must be represented by the aorist when it is summed up. With definite numbers the aorist is the rule except as set forth in sections 208-10. (Complexive Aorist.)

Εὐκτήμων . . . ἐβίω ἔτη ἓξ καὶ ἐνενήκοντα”, ISAE. 6.18; Euctemon lived ninety-six years.

LYCURG.72:ἐνενήκοντα . . . ἔτη τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἡγεμόνες κατέστησαν”.

DEM.38.12:τούτων . . . ἐπίτροπος . . . ἐγένεθ᾽ ἑκκαίδεκ̓ ἔτη”, Of these he was (not became) guardian sixteen years.

ISAE. 6.18 (see above).

LYS.12.4:ἔτη δὲ τριάκοντα ᾤκησε” .

ANDOC.3.4:ἡμῖν εἰρήνη ἐγένετο . . . ἔτη πεντήκοντα, καὶ ἐνεμείναμεν ἀμφότεροι ταύταις ταῖς σπονδαῖς ἔτη τριακαίδεκα”.

THUC.2.2:τέσσαρα μὲν γὰρ καὶ δέκα ἔτη ἐνέμειναν αἱ τριακοντούτεις σπονδαί”. 4.6.2:ἡμέρας . . . πεντεκαίδεκα ἔμειναν ἐν τῇ Ἀττικῇ” , They remained fifteen days in Attica.

HDT.2.157:Ψαμμήτιχος . . . ἐβασίλευσε Αἰγύπτου τέσσερα καὶ πεντήκοντα ἔτεα”.

AR. Pl. 846: “οὔκ, ἀλλ᾽ ἐνερρίγως᾿ ἔτη τριακαίδεκα”.

HOM. Il. 6.174:ἐννῆμαρ ξείνισσε” (209).

244. So of the Moods:

LYCURG.58:ἓξ ἔτη συνεχω_ς ἀποδημήσας”, Having been abroad for six years continuously.

LYS.24.9:δεκάκις ἂν ἕλοιτο χορηγῆσαι μᾶλλον ἀντιδοῦναι ἅπαξ” .

PLATO, Legg. 955A:δεθῆναι . . . ἐνιαυτόν”, To be put in jail a year.

HDT.1.7:ἄρξαντες . . . ἔτεα πέντε τε καὶ πεντακόσια”. 1.16. 25.

ANACR. 8:ἔτεα πεντήκοντά τε καὶ ἑκατὸν . . . βασιλεῦσαι”.

HOM. Il. 6.217:ἐείκοσιν ἤματ᾽ ἐρύξας” .

245. Aorist of total negation.

As the aorist is used of one, so it is used of none. Total negation is expressed by the aorist, as resistance to pressure is expressed by the imperfect (216).

οὐχ εἷλον”, They did not take;οὐχ ᾕρουν”, They could not take.οὐκ ἐδέξαντο”, They did not receive;οὐκ ἐδέχοντο”, They would not receive.οἱ μὲν οὐκ ἦλθον, οἱ δ᾽ ἐλθόντες οὐδὲν ἐποίουν”, DEM.18.151; Some did not come; some, when they did come, would not do anything.

LYS.3.14:οὐδεὶς οὔτε κατεάγη τὴν κεφαλὴν οὔτε ἄλλο κακὸν οὐδὲν ἔλαβεν” .

PLATO, Gorg. 471B:ού μετεμέλησεν αὐτῷ”.

XEN. Conv. 1.14: “οὐκ ἐκίνησε γέλωτα”.

AR. Ach. 34-6: “οὐδεπώποτ᾽ εἶπεν” (sc. “ δῆμος”), “ἄνθρακας πρίω”, | . . . | “ἀλλ᾽ αὐτὸς ἔφερε πάντα”.

AESCHYL. Pers. 179:οὔτι πω τοιόνδ᾽ ἐναργὲς εἰδόμην”.

PIND. O. 1.47: “οὐδὲ ματρὶ πολλὰ μαιόμενοι φῶτες ἄγαγον”.

HOM. Il. 3.239-40: “ οὐχ ἑσπέσθην Λακεδαίμονος ἐξ ἐρατεινῆς”, | “ δεύρω μὲν ἕποντο κτἑ”.

246. The same principle applies to the moods. The change of tense from present to aorist is often to be accounted for by a change from positive to negative, and vice versa.

μηδὲν ἁμαρτεῖν ἐστι θεῶν καὶ πάντα κατορθοῦν”, Epigr.ap. DEM.18.289; To make no blunder and do all things right, (that) is (the province) of the gods (alone).

DEM. (Epigr. ap.), 18.289 (see above).

ISOC.4.11:ὥσπερ . . . τὸν . . . ἀκριβῶς ἐπιστάμενον λέγειν ἁπλῶς οὐκ ἂν δυνάμενον εἰπεῖν”.

ANTIPHON, 1.6: “ἐξουσία ἦν σαφῶς εἰδέναι . . . οὐκ ἦν πυθέσθαι”.

PLATO , Alc. II, 143 B: “ὅπερ οὖν οὐδεὶς ἂν οἰηθείη, ἀλλὰ τοῦτό γε πᾶς ἂν οἴοιτο ἱκανὸς εἶναι”. Ion, 531 B:εἰ δὲ σὺ ἦσθα μάντις, οὐκ, εἴπερ περὶ τῶν ὁμοίως λεγομένων οἷός τ᾽ ἦσθα ἐξηγήσασθαι οὐχ οἷός τ᾽ εἶ ἐξηγήσασθαι, καὶ περὶ τῶν διαφόρως λεγομένων ἠπίστω ἂν ἐξηγεῖσθαι;

XEN. An. 2.4.6: “ἀδύνατον διαβῆναι”.

THUC.1.70.2:τὰ ὑπάρχοντά τε σῴζειν καὶ ἐπιγνῶναι μηδέν”.

AR. Lys. 129:οὐκ ἂν ποιἠσαιμι” (no metrical necessity).

AESCHYL. P.V. 63:πλὴν τοῦδ᾽ ἂν οὐδεὶς ἐνδίκως μέμψαιτό μοι” (no metrical necessity).

PIND. N. 8.44-5: “τὸ δ᾽ αὖτις τεὰν ψυχὰν κομίξαι” | “οὔ μοι δυνατόν” (no metrical necessity).

247. When the negative is the equivalent of the positive present, the present is more frequently used in both members.

θάρσεε, Γύγη, καὶ μὴ φοβεῦ”, HDT.1.9; Be of good courage, Gyges, and be not afraid.ἀποστερεῖν καὶ μὴ ἀποδιδόναι”, DEM. [35]DEM., 42.

DEM. [35]DEM., 42(see above).

AESCHIN.2.59:παρεῖναι καὶ μὴ ἀποδημεῖν”.

HDT.1.9(see above).

HOM. Od. 4.825: “θάρσει, μηδέ τι πάγχυ μετὰ φρεσὶ δείδιθι λίην”.

248. The aorist for the perfect.

The aorist is very often used where we should expect the perfect.

1. Many verbs form no perfect. So many of the liquid verbs. The aorist is next of kin. In later Greek many mechanical perfects have been formed from the desire of analogy. See Curtius, Verbum II, 211.

ἀλλὰ Θετταλία πῶς ἔχει; οὐχὶ τὰς πολιτείας καὶ τὰς πόλεις αὐτῶν παρῄρηται, καὶ τετραρχίας κατέστησεν,11 ἵνα μὴ μόνον κατὰ πόλεις, ἀλλὰ καὶ κατ᾽ ἔθνη δουλεύωσιν;DEM.9.26.

DEM.9.26(see above).

ISOC.5.19-21: “οὐκ ἐλάττω τὴν βασιλείαν πεποίηκεν ἀλλ᾽ εὐχῆς ἄξια διαπέπρακται. τί γὰρ ἐλλέλοιπεν; οὐ . . . πεποίηκεν . . . προσῆκται . . . πεποίηκενκατέστραπται . . . εἴληφεν . . . γέγονεν; ἁπάσης δὲ τῆς Θρᾴκης οὓς ἠβουλήθη δεσπότας κατέστησεν”; (A solitary aorist after a long string of perfects.)

AR. Av. 301:τί φῄς; τίς γλαῦκ᾽ Ἀθήναζ᾽ ἤγαγε;” (No classic perfect.)

AESCHYL. P. V. 28:τοιαῦτ᾽ ἐπηύρου ῾νο περφεξτ̓ τοῦ φιλανθρώπου τρόπου” .

PIND. O. 10.7-8: “ μέλλων χρόνος” | “ἐμὸν καταίσχυνε βαθὺ χρέος” (see note ad loc.).

HOM. Il. 5.127-8: “ἀχλὺν δ᾽ αὖ τοι ἀπ̓ ὀφθαλμω_ν ἕλον, πρὶν ἐπῆεν”, | “ὄφρ᾽ εὖ γιγνώσκῃς ἠμὲν θεὸν ἠδὲ καὶ ἄνδρα” (“ᾕρηκα” is not found in Homer).

249. 2. When the perfect is used as a present, the aorist may take a perfect translation.12

πολλάκις ἐθαύμασα”, XEN. Mem. 1.1.1; I have often wondered.ἔκτησο . . . αὐτὸς τά περ αὐτὸς ἐκτήσαο”, HDT.7.29; Keep thyself what thyself hast made.

LYS.12.3:πολλάκις εἰς πολλὴν ἀθυμίαν κατέστην, μὴ . . . ποιήσωμαι” .

HDT.4.97:οὐ γὰρ ἔδεισά κω μὴ ἑσσωθέωμεν ὑπὸ Σκυθέων μάχῃ”. 7.29 (see above).

EUR. Alc. 541: “τεθνᾶσιν οἱ θανόντες: ἀλλ᾽ ἴθ̓ εἰς δόμους”, Once dead, the dead stay dead. Get thee within. fr. 507:τί τοὺς θανόντας οὐκ ἐᾷς τεθνηκέναι”;

AESCHYL. Cho. 504:οὕτω γὰρ οὐ τέθνηκας οὐδέ περ θανών”, Thus (shalt thou show) thou art not dead though thou hast died.

HOM. Od. 1.166-8: “νῦν δ᾽ μὲν ὣς ἀπόλωλε . . . τοῦ δ᾽ ὤλετο νόστιμον ἦμαρ”.

Il. 13.623-4: “οὐδέ τι . . . ἐδδείσατε”. 772-3: “νῦν ὤλετο πᾶσα κατ᾽ ἄκρης Ἴλιος αἰπεινή”.

250. 3. The aorist is used from affinity to the negative.

τῶν οἰκετῶν οὐδένα κατέλιπεν, ἀλλ᾽ ἅπαντας πέπρακε”, AESCHIN.1.99; Not a servant has he left (did he leave), but he has sold them all (they are all sold).

HYPER. Eux. 28: “οὐδ᾽ αὐτὸς ἰδιώτην οὐδένα πώποτε ἐν τῷ βίῳ ἔκρινα . . . τίνας οὖν κέκρικα”;

AESCHIN.1.99(see above).

ISOC.3.35:φανήσομαι γὰρ οὐδένα μὲν πὠποτ᾽ ἀδικήσας, πλείους δὲ . . . τῶν πολιτῶν . . . εὖ πεποιηκὼς . . . σύμπαντες οἱ πρὸ ἐμοῦ βασιλεύσαντες”.

251. 4. Other examples:

ISOC.8.19: μὲν τοίνυν πόλεμος ἁπάντων ἡμᾶς τῶν εἰρημένων ἀπεστέρηκεν: καὶ γὰρ πενεστέρους ἐποίησε καὶ πολλοὺς κινδύνους ὑπομένειν ἠνάγκασε καὶ πρὸς τοὺς Ἕλληνας διαβέβληκε καὶ πάντας τρόπους τεταλαιπώρηκεν ἡμᾶς”.

HOM, Il. 4.243-6: “τίφθ᾽ οὕτως ἔστητε τεθηπότες ἠύτε νεβροί”; | “αἵ τ᾽” . . . | “ἑστᾶς᾿”, . . . | “ὣς ὑμεῖς ἔστητε τεθηπότες οὐδὲ μάχεσθε” (“ἔστητε” is here used instead of a perfect in a present sense).

252. This is especially important in the matter of sequence. See LYS. 12.3 (249), HDT.4.97(249), and HOM. Il. 5.127-8 (248), where the aorist equals the perfect and naturally takes the sequence of the principal tenses.13

253. Aorist translated by the pluperfect.

We often translate the aorist by a pluperfect for the sake of clearness.

τοῖς ἰδίοις χρήσεσθαι ἔφη, πατὴρ αὐτῷ ἔδωκεν”, XEN. Hell. 1.5.3; He said that he would use his own means, which his father had given him.

XEN. Hell. 1.5.3 (see above). 7.2.19: “ὡς δὲ τὴν νύκτα ἠγρύπνησαν, ἐκάθευδον μέχρι πόρρω τῆς ἡμέρας”, As they had been awake all night, they slept until far into the day.

THUC.7.1.3:τὰς γὰρ ναῦς ἀνείλκυσαν ἐν Ἱμέρᾳ”, The ships they had beached in Himera.

HDT.4.146:αἱ δὲ ἐπείτε ἐσῆλθον, ποιέουσι τοιάδε”. 147: “δεινὸν ποιεύμενος ἄρχεσθαι ὑπ᾽ ἄλλων ἐπείτε ἐγεύσατο ἀρχῆς”.

For other examples, see Temporal Sentences.

254. For the difference of the aorist and the pluperfect, compare HDT.3.25:πρὶν δὲ τῆς ὁδοῦ τὸ πέμπτον μέρος διεληλυθέναι τὴν στρατιήν, αὐτίκα πάντα αὐτοὺς τὰ εἶχον σιτίων ἐχόμενα ἐπελελοίπεε, μετὰ δὲ τὰ σιτία καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ἐπέλιπε κατεσθιόμενα”, Before they HAD completed the fifth part of the journey, the provisions HAD entirely failed them, and after their provisions their beasts of burden FAILED them.

255. Gnomic aorist.

The universal present may be represented by the aorist. The principle is that of the generic article. A model individual is made to represent a class. This is called the gnomic aorist, because it is used in maxims, sentences, proverbs (“γνῶμαι”), which delight in concrete illustrations. The gnomic aorist interchanges freely with the present, but does not thereby lose its peculiar effect.14

ῥώμη . . . μετὰ μὲν φρονήσεως ὠφέλησεν, ἄνευ δὲ ταύτης πλείω τοὺς ἔχοντας ἔβλαψε”, ISOC. [1]ISOC., 6; Strength with judgment does good, without it does greater harm to those that possess it.

DEM.2.9:ὅταν μὲν γὰρ ὑπ᾽ εὐνοίας τὰ πράγματα συστῇ, . . . συμπονεῖνἐθέλουσιν ἅνθρωποι: ὅταν δ᾽ ἐκ πλεονεξίας καὶ πονηρίας τις ὥσπερ οὗτος ἰσχύσῃ, πρώτη πρόφασις καὶ μικρὸν πταῖσμα πάντ᾽ ἀνεχαίτισεν καὶ διέλυσεν”. Ibid. 10. 21. 5.12.

ISOC.1.6(see above). 5.38: “ἐπὴν δὲ κακῶς ἀλλήλους διαθῶσιν, οὐδενὸς διαλύοντος αὐτοὶ διέστησαν”.

PLATO, Legg. 720D: δὲ ἐλεύθερος” (sc. “ἰατρός”) . . . “διδάσκει τὸν ἀσθενοῦντα αὐτόν, καὶ οὐ πρότερον ἐπέταξε πρὶν ἄν τῃ ξυμπείσῃ”, The physician who is free (and not a slave) instructs the patient himself and does not give a prescription until he in some way succeeds in convincing him. Phaedo 73 D:οἱ ἐρασταί, ὅταν ἴδωσι λύραν . . . ἄλλο τι οἷς τὰ παιδικὰ αὐτῶν εἴωθε χρῆσθαι, πάσχουσι τοῦτο: ἔγνωσάν τε τὴν λύραν καὶ ἐν τῇ διανοίᾳ ἔλαβον τὸ εἶδος τοῦ παιδός, οὗ ἦν λύρα”.

HDT.7.10, “ε”): “οὕτω δὲ καὶ στρατὸς πολλὸς ὑπὸ ὀλίγου διαφθείρεται κατὰ τοιόνδε. ἐπεάν σφι θεὸς φθονήσας φόβον ἐμβάλῃ βροντήν, δἰ ὦν ἐφθάρησαν ἀναξίως ἑωυτῶν” (a good example of general principle and particular illustration).

COM. Men.4.354.495:τύχη τέχνην ὤρθωσεν, οὐ τέχνη τύχην”.

PIND. O. 4.4: “ξείνων δ᾽ εὖ πρασσόντων, ἔσαναν αὐτίκ̓ ἀγγελίαν ποτὶ γλυκεῖαν ἐσλοἰ”. O. 7.30-1: “αἱ δὲ φρενῶν ταραχαὶ παρέπλαγξαν καὶ σοφόν”. fr. 225:ὁπόταν θεὸς ἀνδρὶ χάρμα πέμψῃ, πάρος μέλαιναν κραδίαν ἐστυφέλιξεν” . . .

SIMON. C. 65: “ δ᾽ αὖ θάνατος κίχε καὶ τὸν φυγόμαχον”.

THEOGN. 661-6: “καὶ ἐκ κακοῦ ἐσθλὸν ἔγεντο”, | “καὶ κακὸν ἐξ ἀγαθοῦ: καί τε πενιχρὸς ἀνὴρ” | “αἶψα μάλ᾽ ἐπλούτησε: καὶ ὃς μάλα πολλὰ πέπαται”, | “ἐξαπίνης πάντ᾽ οὖν ὤλεσε νυκτὶ μιῇ”. | “καὶ σώφρων ἥμαρτε, καὶ ἄφρονι πολλάκι δόξα” | “ἕσπετο, καὶ τιμῆς καὶ κακὸς ὢν ἔλαχεν”.

SOLON, 13.8. 28. 29. 31. 38. 54. 68.

TYRT.12.20-2: “οὗτος ἀνὴρ ἀγαθὸς γίγνεται ἐν πολέμῳ:” | “αἶψα δὲ δυσμενέων ἀνδρῶν ἔτρεψε φάλαγγας” | “τρηχείας, σπουδῇ τ᾽ ἔσχεθε κῦμα μάχης”.

HES. Theog. 436: “παραγίγνεται ἠδ᾽ ὀνίνησι”, but 442-3: “ῥῃιδίως ἄγρην κυδρὴ θεὸς ὤπασε πολλήν”, | “ῥεῖα δ᾽ ἀφείλετο φαινομένην, ἐθέλουσά γε θυμῷ”. 447: “ἐξ ὀλίγων βριάει, κἀκ πολλῶν μείονα θῆκεν”. (The end of the verse is more than a metrical shift; it is a swoop.)

HOM. Il. 4.442-3: “ τ᾽ ὀλίγη μὲν πρῶτα κορύσσεται, αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα” | “οὐρανῷ ἐστήριξε κάρη καὶ ἐπὶ χθονὶ βαίνει”.

256. Aorist of comparison.

Ultimately akin to the gnomic aorist is the aorist of comparison which is often used in poetry, the concrete example being more vivid and striking.

δεῖ δὴ πάντας, ὥσπερ οἱ ἰατροί, ὅταν καρκίνον . . . ἴδωσιν, ἀπέκανσαν ὅλως ἀπέκοψαν, οὕτω τοῦτο τὸ θηρίον ὑμᾶς ἐξορίσαι κτἑ.”, DEM.25.95; As physicions, when they see a cancer, burn it off or cut it off bodily, so ought you all to landdamn this monster.

SOLON, 13.18-25: “ὥστ᾽ ἄνεμος νεφέλας αἶψα διεσκέδασεν” | “ἠρινός, ὃς” . . . “γῆν κατὰ πυροφόρον” | “δῃώσας καλὰ ἔργα, θεῶν ἕδος αἰπὺν