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στυγερὸν στυγερῶς: cp. 1369κακῶς.. κακούς”: O. T. 479μέλεος μελέῳ ποδὶ χηρεύων”. Tragedy applies “στυγερός”, in the sense of ‘wretched,’ not only to things ( Tr. 1016βίου...τοῦ στυγεροῦ”), but also to persons, as Ant. 144τοῖν στυγεροῖν” (the sons of Oed.: where see n.). Almost all recent editors, however, have received Brunck's conjecture, σμυγερὸν σμυγερῶς, i.e., ‘with painful toil.’ At first sight, this is favoured by the schol. here, “ἐπιμόνως”, which can scarcely be explained as meaning ‘with grim resolve,’ and ought doubtless to be “ἐπιπόνως”. Now, as Brunck points out, Hesych. has “σμυγερὸν, ἐπίπονον, οἰκτρόν, μοχθηρόν: σμυγερῶς, ἐπίπονως”. So Eustath. p. 1463 “ἔστι δὲ σμυγερῶς, τὸ ἐπιπόνως, ὀδυνηρῶς”. Yet the following considerations make me hesitate to forsake the MSS. (1) Is it so clear that, in this context, the schol. could not have used “ἐπιπόνως” to explain “στυγερῶς”, seeing that the notions of “πόνος” and ‘wretchedness’ are often so near to each other, esp. in poetry? (2) Apollonius Rhodius seems to be the earliest extant writer who uses “σμυγερός”: 2. 374 “σμυγερώτατοι ἀνδρῶν” (most laborious'): 4. 380 “σμυγερῶς”, ‘painfully.’ Homer has only “ἐπισμυγερῶς”: Hesiod has “ἐπισμυγερός”. On the other hand, the form “μογερός” is used five times by Aesch. , thrice by Eur. , once by Soph. ( Soph. El. 93), and once by Ar. ; but “σμυγερός” never.

hide References (5 total)
  • Commentary references from this page (5):
    • Sophocles, Antigone, 144
    • Sophocles, Electra, 93
    • Sophocles, Oedipus Tyrannus, 479
    • Sophocles, Philoctetes, 1369
    • Sophocles, Trachiniae, 1016
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