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πάμψυχος=“πᾶσαν τὴν ψυχὴν ἔχων” (cp. “ἄψυχος”). The mind of Amphiaraüs acts upon men through his oracles as fully as if he were alive. In the popular belief, the ordinary shades of the departed had either no intelligence or a feeble one. Thus Teiresias is an exception ( Od. 10. 495): “τῷ καὶ τεθνηῶτι νόον πόρε Περσεφόνεια” | “οἴῳ πεπνῦσθαι: τοὶ δὲ σκιαὶ ἀΐσσουσιν”. It was felt difficult to conceive mind apart from its supposed physical basis, the “φρένες” or diaphragm: cp. Leaf on Il. 23. 104.—The scholia recognise this explanation of “πάμψυχος”, but suggest also two others, both untenable: (1) ‘ruling over all the shades’: or (2) ‘possessing his life “διὰ παντός”,’ i.e. ‘immortal.’

The cult of Amphiaraüs had its chief seat in Boeotia, but afterwards spread thence to Argos, and throughout Greece. He was a chthonian deity, like Melampus; associated with Dionysus, and then with the Apollinar “μαντική”. The “Ἀμφιάρειον” near Thebes, a dream-oracle, was consulted by Mardonius ( Her. 8. 134). In later times the shrine near Oropus was more famous ( I. Paus. 34. 2).

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